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mtDNA Lineage Expansions in Sherpa Population Suggest Adaptive Evolution in Tibetan Highlands

Sherpa population is an ethnic group living in south mountainside of Himalayas for hundreds of years. They are famous as extraordinary mountaineers and guides, considered as a good example for successful adaptation to low oxygen environment in Tibetan highlands. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variations might be important in the highland adaption given its role in coding core subunits...

Reproducibility and Relative Validity of a Food Frequency Questionnaire Developed for Adults in Taizhou, China

Objective To evaluate the reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) developed to investigate the relationship between dietary factors and diseases in the adult Chinese population in East China. Methods A total of 78 males and 129 females aged 30–75 years completed four inconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls (24-HRs, served as a reference method) and two...

Effect of Different Suprahepatic Vena Cava Reconstruction Methods on the Hemodynamics of Rats after Liver Transplantation

Background There are few studies on the hemodynamic changes after orthotopic liver transplantation in rats. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of different suprahepatic vena cava (SHVC) reconstruction methods on the hemodynamics of rats after liver transplantation. Materials and Methods Three rat liver transplantation groups were created according to the SHVC...

Pri-miR-124 rs531564 and pri-miR-34b/c rs4938723 Polymorphisms Are Associated with Decreased Risk of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Chinese Populations

MicroRNAs are a new class of small non-protein-coding RNAs that sometimes function as tumor suppressors or oncogenes. Aberrant expression and structural alteration of microRNAs have been reported to be involved in tumorigenesis and cancer development. Recently, rs531564/pri-miR-124-1, rs4938723/pri-miR-34b/c, rs7372209/pri-miR-26a-1, rs895819/pre-miR-27a, and rs11134527/pri-miR...

The Combination of RAD001 and MK-2206 Exerts Synergistic Cytotoxic Effects against PTEN Mutant Gastric Cancer Cells: Involvement of MAPK-Dependent Autophagic, but Not Apoptotic Cell Death Pathway

In the current study, we showed that the combination of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor RAD001 (everolimus) and Akt inhibitor MK-2206 exerted synergistic cytotoxic effects against low-phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gastric cancer cells (HGC-27 and SNU-601 lines). In HGC-27 cells, RAD001 and MK-2206 synergistically induced G1/S cell cycle arrest, growth...

Biodetoxification of toxins generated from lignocellulose pretreatment using a newly isolated fungus, Amorphotheca resinae ZN1, and the consequent ethanol fermentation

Background Degradation of the toxic compounds generated in the harsh pretreatment of lignocellulose is an inevitable step in reducing the toxin level for conducting practical enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation processes. Various detoxification methods have been tried and many negative outcomes were found using these methods, such as the massive freshwater usage and...

Exploratory analysis of protein translation regulatory networks using hierarchical random graphs

=S3. Authors contributions DDW designed the study, performed the computational experiments, and drafted the manuscript. XH supervised the study. E.K. Park, Xiaofeng Wang, Jiali Feng, and Xindong Wu

Nearby supernova rates from the Lick Observatory Supernova Search – III. The rate–size relation, and the rates as a function of galaxy Hubble type and colour

This is the third paper of a series in which we present new measurements of the observed rates of supernovae (SNe) in the local Universe, determined from the Lick Observatory Supernova Search (LOSS). We have considered a sample of ∼1000 SNe and used an optimal subsample of 726 SNe (274 SNe Ia, 116 SNe Ibc and 324 SNe II) to determine our rates. We study the trend of the rates as...

Enhanced Transgene Expression in Sugarcane by Co-Expression of Virus-Encoded RNA Silencing Suppressors

Post-transcriptional gene silencing is commonly observed in polyploid species and often poses a major limitation to plant improvement via biotechnology. Five plant viral suppressors of RNA silencing were evaluated for their ability to counteract gene silencing and enhance the expression of the Enhanced Yellow Fluorescent Protein (EYFP) or the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene...

A novel FGFR3-binding peptide inhibits FGFR3 signaling and reverses the lethal phenotype of mice mimicking human thanatophoric dysplasia

Gain-of-function mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 (FGFR3) lead to several types of human skeletal dysplasia syndromes including achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia and thanatophoric dysplasia (TD). Currently, there are no effective treatments for these skeletal dysplasia diseases. In this study, we screened, using FGFR3 as a bait, a random 12-peptide phage library...

A novel expression platform for the production of diabetes-associated autoantigen human glutamic acid decarboxylase (hGAD65)

Background Human glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (hGAD65) is a key autoantigen in type 1 diabetes, having much potential as an important marker for the prediction and diagnosis of type 1 diabetes, and for the development of novel antigen-specific therapies for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. However, recombinant production of hGAD65 using conventional bacterial or mammalian cell...

Nearby supernova rates from the Lick Observatory Supernova Search – II. The observed luminosity functions and fractions of supernovae in a complete sample

This is the second paper of a series in which we present new measurements of the observed rates of supernovae (SNe) in the local Universe, determined from the Lick Observatory Supernova Search (LOSS). In this paper, a complete SN sample is constructed, and the observed (uncorrected for host-galaxy extinction) luminosity functions (LFs) of SNe are derived. These LFs solve two...

Rationales, design and recruitment of the Taizhou Longitudinal Study

Background Rapid economic growth in China in the past decades has been accompanied by dramatic changes in lifestyle and environmental exposures. The burdens of non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and cancer, have also increased substantially. Methods/design We initiated a large prospective cohort–the Taizhou Longitudinal Study–in Taizhou (a medium...

Construction of an integrated genetic linkage map for the A genome of Brassica napus using SSR markers derived from sequenced BACs in B. rapa

Background The Multinational Brassica rapa Genome Sequencing Project (BrGSP) has developed valuable genomic resources, including BAC libraries, BAC-end sequences, genetic and physical maps, and seed BAC sequences for Brassica rapa. An integrated linkage map between the amphidiploid B. napus and diploid B. rapa will facilitate the rapid transfer of these valuable resources from B...

An Amphipathic α-Helix Controls Multiple Roles of Brome Mosaic Virus Protein 1a in RNA Replication Complex Assembly and Function

Brome mosaic virus (BMV) protein 1a has multiple key roles in viral RNA replication. 1a localizes to perinuclear endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes as a peripheral membrane protein, induces ER membrane invaginations in which RNA replication complexes form, and recruits and stabilizes BMV 2a polymerase (2aPol) and RNA replication templates at these sites to establish active...

Berkeley Supernova Ia Program – I. Observations, data reduction and spectroscopic sample of 582 low-redshift Type Ia supernovae

Sung Park Daniel A. Perley Dovi Poznanski Cassie A. Reuter James Scala Franklin J. D. Serduke Joseph C. Shields Brandon J. Swift John L. Tonry Schuyler D. Van Dyk Xiaofeng Wang Diane S. Wong 0 Marc J

Extrapolation of a PBPK Model for Dioxins across Dosage Regimen, Gender, Strain, and Species

A physiologically based pharmacodynamic (PBPK) model for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was developed based on pharmacokinetic data from acute oral exposures of TCDD to female Sprague-Dawley rats (Wang et al., 1997, Toxicol Appl. Pharmacol 147, 151–168). In the present study, the utility of this model to predict the disposition of TCDD in male and female Sprague...