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227 papers found.
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Accurate inference of isoforms from multiple sample RNA-Seq data

Background RNA-Seq based transcriptome assembly has become a fundamental technique for studying expressed mRNAs (i.e., transcripts or isoforms) in a cell using high-throughput sequencing technologies, and is serving as a basis to analyze the structural and quantitative differences of expressed isoforms between samples. However, the current transcriptome assembly algorithms are...

A fast and accurate algorithm for single individual haplotyping

Background Due to the difficulty in separating two (paternal and maternal) copies of a chromosome, most published human genome sequences only provide genotype information, i.e., the mixed information of the underlying two haplotypes. However, phased haplotype information is needed to completely understand complex genetic polymorphisms and to increase the power of genome-wide...

ALDH1A3: A Marker of Mesenchymal Phenotype in Gliomas Associated with Cell Invasion

Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) is a family of enzymes including 19 members. For now, ALDH activity had been wildly used as a marker of cancer stem cells (CSCs). But biological functions of relevant isoforms and their clinical applications are still controversial. Here, we investigate the clinical significance and potential function of ALDH1A3 in gliomas. By whole-genome...

Seasonal variation of size-fractionated phytoplankton in the Pearl River estuary

To investigate the dynamics of phytoplankton size structure in the Pearl River estuary, concentrations of size-fractionated chlorophyll a (Chl a) were determined during four cruises carried out in 2008 and 2010. The distribution of Chl a in this geographical location showed a high degree of temporal variation. Chl a concentrations were highest in autumn, approximately three times...

Circulating microRNAs in cancer: origin, function and application

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. The dysregulation of miRNAs has been linked to a series of diseases, including various types of cancer. Since their discovery in the circulation of cancer patients, there has been a steady increase in the study of circulating miRNAs as stable, non-invasive...

Three isoforms of the Atg16L1 protein contribute different autophagic properties

The mammalian Atg16L1 protein consists of a coiled-coil domain and a tryptophan-aspartic acid (WD) repeat domain and is involved in the process of autophagy. However, the mechanisms underlying the effect of the Atg16L1 isoforms on autophagy remain to be elucidated in humans. In the present study, we successfully cloned three isoforms: Atg16L1-1, which contains the complete...

An Efficient Algorithm for Haplotype Inference on Pedigrees with a Small Number of Recombinants

Combinatorial (or rule-based) methods for inferring haplotypes from genotypes on a pedigree have been studied extensively in the recent literature. These methods generally try to reconstruct the haplotypes of each individual so that the total number of recombinants is minimized in the pedigree. The problem is NP-hard, although it is known that the number of recombinants in a...

Is laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery associated with an increased risk in obese patients? A retrospective study from China

Xiang Xia 0 Chen Huang 0 Tao Jiang Gang Cen Jun Cao Kejian Huang Zhengjun Qiu 0 Equal contributors Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Jiaotong University Affiliated First People's Hospital

Time-course changes in left ventricular myocardial deformation in STZ-induced rabbits on velocity vector imaging

Objectives To clarify the time-course changes in left ventricular myocardial deformation using velocity vector imaging and to provide insights into our understanding of the cardiac pathophysiology in diabetes mellitus. Methods Thirty New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into either the control group (n = 10) or the diabetes mellitus (DM) group (induced with STZ, n = 20...

Detecting genome-wide epistases based on the clustering of relatively frequent items

Motivation: In genome-wide association studies (GWAS), up to millions of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are genotyped for thousands of individuals. However, conventional single locus-based approaches are usually unable to detect gene–gene interactions underlying complex diseases. Due to the huge search space for complicated high order interactions, many existing multi...

Novel core promoter elements in the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans and their influence on expression detected by genome-wide analysis

Background The core promoter is the region flanking the transcription start site (TSS) that directs formation of the pre-initiation complex. Core promoters have been studied intensively in mammals and yeast, but not in more diverse eukaryotes. Here we investigate core promoters in oomycetes, a group within the Stramenopile kingdom that includes important plant and animal...

Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 Gene Mutation Is Associated with Prognosis in Clinical Low-Grade Gliomas

Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene mutations are found in most World Health Organization grade II and III gliomas and secondary glioblastomas. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutations are known to have prognostic value in high-grade gliomas. However, their prognostic significance in low-grade gliomas remains controversial. We determined the predictive and prognostic value of isocitrate...

Influence of bulking agents on CH4, N2O, and NH3 emissions during rapid composting of pig manure from the Chinese Ganqinfen system

small influence on the loss of total organic carbon, whereas it significantly influenced the loss of total nitrogen. Compliance with ethics guidelines Xiang-ping SUN, Peng LU, Tao JIANG, Frank

Revealing an outward-facing open conformational state in a CLC Cl-/H+ exchange transporter

CLC secondary active transporters exchange Cl- for H+. Crystal structures have suggested that the conformational change from occluded to outward-facing states is unusually simple, involving only the rotation of a conserved glutamate (Gluex) upon its protonation. Using 19F NMR, we show that as [H+] is increased to protonate Gluex and enrich the outward-facing state, a residue ~20...

Prognostic Significance of Complications after Laparoscopic Colectomy for Colon Cancer

, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing Interests: The co-author Tao Jiang is a PLOS ONE Editorial Board member. The authors confirm that this does not alter their adherence to PLOS

Structural insights into the assembly of human translesion polymerase complexes

In addition to DNA repair pathways, cells utilize translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) to bypass DNA lesions during replication. During TLS, Y-family DNA polymerase (Polη, Polκ, Polı and Rev1) inserts specific nucleotide opposite preferred DNA lesions, and then Polζ consisting of two subunits, Rev3 and Rev7, carries out primer extension. Here, we report the complex structures of Rev3...

Indian-Ink Perfusion Based Method for Reconstructing Continuous Vascular Networks in Whole Mouse Brain

The topology of the cerebral vasculature, which is the energy transport corridor of the brain, can be used to study cerebral circulatory pathways. Limited by the restrictions of the vascular markers and imaging methods, studies on cerebral vascular structure now mainly focus on either observation of the macro vessels in a whole brain or imaging of the micro vessels in a small...

Visual Working Memory Load-Related Changes in Neural Activity and Functional Connectivity

Background Visual working memory (VWM) helps us store visual information to prepare for subsequent behavior. The neuronal mechanisms for sustaining coherent visual information and the mechanisms for limited VWM capacity have remained uncharacterized. Although numerous studies have utilized behavioral accuracy, neural activity, and connectivity to explore the mechanism of VWM...

Uncover disease genes by maximizing information flow in the phenome–interactome network

Motivation: Pinpointing genes that underlie human inherited diseases among candidate genes in susceptibility genetic regions is the primary step towards the understanding of pathogenesis of diseases. Although several probabilistic models have been proposed to prioritize candidate genes using phenotype similarities and protein–protein interactions, no combinatorial approaches have...

MultiMSOAR 2.0: An Accurate Tool to Identify Ortholog Groups among Multiple Genomes

The identification of orthologous genes shared by multiple genomes plays an important role in evolutionary studies and gene functional analyses. Based on a recently developed accurate tool, called MSOAR 2.0, for ortholog assignment between a pair of closely related genomes based on genome rearrangement, we present a new system MultiMSOAR 2.0, to identify ortholog groups among...