Advanced search    

Search: authors:"Umesh D. Parashar"

84 papers found.
Use AND, OR, NOT, +word, -word, "long phrase", (parentheses) to fine-tune your search.

A qualitative assessment of factors influencing acceptance of a new rotavirus vaccine among health care providers and consumers

0 Mark Herring 4 Umesh D Parashar 2 0 Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education , Oak Ridge, Tennessee , USA 1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Immunizations and

Direct and Indirect Effects of Rotavirus Vaccination Upon Childhood Hospitalizations in 3 US Counties, 2006–2009

Background. Routine rotavirus vaccination of US infants began in 2006. We conducted active, population-based surveillance for rotavirus gastroenteritis hospitalizations in 3 US counties to assess vaccine impact. Methods. Children <36 months old hospitalized with diarrhea and/or vomiting were enrolled from January through June each year during the period 2006–2009 and tested for...

Underestimates of Intussusception Rates among US Infants Based on Inpatient Discharge Data: Implications for Monitoring the Safety of Rotavirus Vaccines

. Parashar 1 3 4 0 Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry , Rochester, New York 1 Potential conflicts of interest: K.E. received grant and contract support from

How Much Could Rotavirus Vaccines Reduce Diarrhea-Associated Mortality in Northern Ghana? A Model to Assess Impact

BackgroundEffective rotavirus vaccines could substantially reduce the ∼500,000 deaths due to rotavirus disease per year worldwide, although the impact will depend on vaccine effectiveness, timing of administration, and coverage. We modeled vaccine impact on rotavirus-associated mortality in rural Ghana MethodsAll deaths due to acute diarrhea among children during 1998–2004 in the...

Effectiveness of Pentavalent and Monovalent Rotavirus Vaccines in Concurrent Use Among US Children <5 Years of Age, 2009–2011

. Parashar 0 6 0 Received 7 December 2012; accepted 4 March 2013; electronically published 13 March 2013. and Respiratory Diseases, Division of Viral Diseases, Epidemiology Branch, US Centers for Disease

Direct and Indirect Effects of Rotavirus Vaccination: Comparing Predictions from Transmission Dynamic Models

Early observations from countries that have introduced rotavirus vaccination suggest that there may be indirect protection for unvaccinated individuals, but it is unclear whether these benefits will extend to the long term. Transmission dynamic models have attempted to quantify the indirect protection that might be expected from rotavirus vaccination in developed countries, but...

Projected Cost-Effectiveness of Rotavirus Vaccination for Children in Asia

Background New rotavirus vaccines may soon be licensed, and decisions regarding implementation of their use will likely be based on the health and economic benefits of vaccination.

Multicenter, Hospital-Based Surveillance of Rotavirus Disease and Strains among Indian Children Aged <5 Years

BackgroundCurrent, nationally representative data on rotavirus disease burden and rotavirus strains in India are needed to understand the potential health benefits of rotavirus vaccination MethodsThe Indian Rotavirus Strain Surveillance Network was established with 4 laboratories and 10 hospitals in 7 different regions of India. At each hospital, children aged <5 years who...

Rotavirus Burden among Children in the Newly Independent States of the Former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: Literature Review and First-Year Results from the Rotavirus Surveillance Network

BackgroundData on rotavirus burden among children in the 15 newly independent states of the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, particularly contemporary data from poorer countries, are not widely available. These data are desired by policy makers to assess the value of rotavirus vaccination, especially since the GAVI Alliance approved financial support for the region’s...

Population-Based Incidence of Intussusception and a Case-Control Study to Examine the Association of Intussusception with Natural Rotavirus Infection among Indian Children

BackgroundA rotavirus vaccine previously licensed in the United States was withdrawn because it caused intussusception. Data on background intussusception rates in developing countries are required to plan pre- and postlicensure safety studies for new rotavirus vaccines. Also, it is unclear whether natural rotavirus infection is associated with intussusception MethodsPassive...

Rotavirus Vaccines: Targeting the Developing World

For the past 2 decades, rotavirus infection, the most common cause of severe diarrhea in children, has been a priority target for vaccine development. This decision to develop rotavirus vaccines is predicated on the great burden associated with fatal rotavirus disease (i.e., 440,000 deaths/year), the firm scientific basis for developing live oral vaccines, the belief that...

Human Caliciviruses as a Cause of Severe Gastroenteritis in Peruvian Children

To define the role of human caliciviruses (HuCVs) in severe childhood gastroenteritis, fecal and paired serum samples from 233 Peruvian children hospitalized with gastroenteritis (case patients) and fecal samples from 248 control subjects were evaluated. Overall, 128 case patients (55%) demonstrated HuCV infection by either fecal (n=81 [35%]) or np81 serological (n= 96 [41...

Hospitalizations Associated with Rotavirus Diarrhea in the United States, 1993 through 1995: Surveillance Based on the New ICD-9-CM Rotavirus-Specific Diagnostic Code

The introduction of a specific International Classification of Diseases code for rotavirus diarrhea in 1992 prompted examination of the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) for trends in rotavirus-associated hospitalizations among US children aged 1 month through 4 years. During 1993–1995, 13.5% of hospitalizations were associated with diarrhea (n = 162,478/year). Rotavirus...

Development of Candidate Rotavirus Vaccines Derived from Neonatal Strains in India

The need for a rotavirus vaccine in India is based on the enormous burden associated with the >100,000 deaths due to rotavirus diarrhea that occur annually among Indian children. Two rotavirus strains identified during nosocomial outbreaks of rotavirus infection in New Delhi and Bangalore, India, more than a decade ago are being developed as live oral vaccines. Infected newborns...

Estimates of Rotavirus Disease Burden in Hong Kong: Hospital-Based Surveillance

Background We conducted prospective, hospital-based surveillance for rotavirus disease for a 2-year period at 4 of 12 public government (Hospital Authority [HA]) hospitals in Hong Kong. It has been estimated that HA hospitals provide 90% of inpatient care in Hong Kong.

Serotype Diversity and Reassortment between Human and Animal Rotavirus Strains: Implications for Rotavirus Vaccine Programs

The development of rotavirus vaccines that are based on heterotypic or serotype-specific immunity has prompted many countries to establish programs to assess the disease burden associated with rotavirus infection and the distribution of rotavirus strains. Strain surveillance helps to determine whether the most prevalent local strains are likely to be covered by the serotype...

Epidemiologic and Molecular Trends of “Norwalk-like Viruses” Associated with Outbreaks of Gastroenteritis in the United States

Between July 1997 and June 2000, fecal specimens from 284 outbreaks of nonbacterial gastroenteritis were submitted to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for testing for “Norwalk-like viruses” (NLVs). Specimens were examined by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and direct electron microscopy for the presence of NLVs. Adequate descriptive data were...

A Cohort Study of Health Care Workers to Assess Nosocomial Transmissibility of Nipah Virus, Malaysia, 1999

During 1998–1999, an outbreak of Nipah virus encephalitis occurred in Malaysia. To assess the possibility of nosocomial transmission, 338 health care workers (HCWs) exposed and 288 HCWs unexposed to outbreak-related patients were surveyed, and their serum samples were tested for anti–Nipah virus antibody. Needlestick injuries were reported by 12 (3%) HCWs, mucosal surface...

The Epidemiology of Enteric Caliciviruses from Humans: A Reassessment Using New Diagnostics

In the United States, acute gastroenteritis is one of the most commonly noted illnesses on hospital discharge records and death certificates, yet few of these cases have an etiologic diagnosis. The application of new molecular diagnostic methods has shown caliciviruses (previously referred to as the Norwalk family of viruses or small round structured viruses) to be the most...

Traveler's Diarrhea at Sea: Three Outbreaks of Waterborne Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli on Cruise Ships

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) has become the leading bacterial cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks on cruise ships. Investigation of recent outbreaks of ETEC gastroenteritis on 3 cruise ships indicated that all were associated with consuming beverages with ice cubes on board the ship (relative risk [RR], 1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0–1.9, P = .02; RR, 1.9, 95...