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How to plant a trillion trees

As projects to restore woodlands accelerate, researchers are looking for ways to avoid repeating past failures.

A steam-based method to investigate biofilm

Biofilm has become a major topic of interest in medical, food, industrial, and environmental bacteriology. To be relevant, investigation of biofilm behavior requires effective and reliable techniques. We present herein a simple and robust method, adapted from the microplate technique, in which steam is used as a soft washing method to preserve biofilm integrity and to improve...

Seroprevalence of Maternal and Cord Antibodies Specific for Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, Measles, Mumps and Rubella in Shunyi, Beijing

Maternal antibodies contribute to the protection of young infants from infectious diseases during the early life. However, vaccinations for women of child-bearing age are not routine in China. Therefore, we investigated the level of protective immunity against vaccine preventable diseases in pregnant women and newborns in China. A total of 194 paired maternal and cord blood...

Ovary abortion is prevalent in diverse maize inbred lines and is under genetic control

Crop improvement programs focus on characteristics that are important for plant productivity. Typically genes underlying these traits are identified and stacked to create improved cultivars. Hence, identification of valuable traits for plant productivity is critical for plant improvement. Here we describe an important characteristic for maize productivity. Despite the fact mature...

Synergistic effect of land-use and vegetation greenness on vulture nestling body condition in arid ecosystems

Climate-driven environmental change and land-use change often interact in their impact on biodiversity, but these interactions have received little scientific attention. Here we study the effects of climate-driven environmental variation (i.e. vegetation greenness) and land-use (protected versus unprotected areas) on body condition of vulture nestlings in savannah landscapes. We...

Septins are critical regulators of osteoclastic bone resorption

Septins are known to play key roles in supporting cytoskeletal stability, vesicular transport, endo-/exocytosis, stabilizing cellular membranes and forming diffusion barriers. Their function in mammalian cells is poorly investigated. The osteoclast offers an interesting tool to investigate septins because all cellular activities septins were reported to be involved in are...

A simple and flexible modification of Grünwald–Letnikov fractional derivative in image processing

In image processing, edge detection and image enhancement can make use of fractional differentiation operators, especially the Grünwald–Letnikov derivative. In this paper, we present a modified Grünwald–Letnikov derivative to enhance more and detect better the edges of an image. Our proposed fractional derivative is very flexible and can be easily performed. We present some...

Food-borne bacterial pathogens in marketed raw meat of Dharan, eastern Nepal

ObjectivesThis study aims to assess the bacteriological quality of marketed raw meat with a special emphasis on isolation of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Vibrio spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus in raw meat marketed in Dharan. Altogether 50 meat samples were collected from local markets of Dharan and transported to the microbiology...

A novel panel of short mononucleotide repeats linked to informative polymorphisms enabling effective high volume low cost discrimination between mismatch repair deficient and proficient tumours

Somatic mutations in mononucleotide repeats are commonly used to assess the mismatch repair status of tumours. Current tests focus on repeats with a length above 15bp, which tend to be somatically more unstable than shorter ones. These longer repeats also have a substantially higher PCR error rate, and tests that use capillary electrophoresis for fragment size analysis often...

Smaller subcortical volume in Parkinson patients with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

Parkinson disease (PD) patients with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) have worse motor symptoms and non-motor symptoms than patients without RBD. The aim of this study was to examine underlying differences in brain structure from a network perspective. Baseline data were obtained from Parkinson’s Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) participants. We divided...

Drug Nanoparticle Stability Assessment Using Isothermal and Nonisothermal Approaches

Many drugs are administered in the form of liquid-dispersed nanoparticles. Frequently, one of the overlooked aspects in the development of this drug delivery system is the loss of efficacy and the degradation of the carried drugs. Estimating the shelf life of drug products implies the storage of samples under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity for different periods...

Recombinant milk fat globule-EGF factor-8 reduces apoptosis via integrin β3/FAK/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in rats after traumatic brain injury

Accumulating evidence suggests neuronal apoptosis has the potential to lead to more harmful effects in the pathological processes following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Previous studies have established that milk fat globule-EGF factor-8 (MFG-E8) provides neuroprotection through modulation of inflammation, oxidative stress, and especially apoptosis in cerebral ischemia and...

Lower-crustal earthquakes in southern Tibet are linked to eclogitization of dry metastable granulite

Southern Tibet is the most active orogenic region on Earth where the Indian Plate thrusts under Eurasia, pushing the seismic discontinuity between the crust and the mantle to an unusual depth of ~80 km. Numerous earthquakes occur in the lower portion of this thickened continental crust, but the triggering mechanisms remain enigmatic. Here we show that dry granulite rocks, the...

Scenario analysis of ecosystem service changes and interactions in a mountain-oasis-desert system: a case study in Altay Prefecture, China

Scenario analysis of ecosystem services (ES) can provide a scientific basis for ecosystem management. The objective of this study was to reveal the effects of future land use scenarios on ES in a mountain-oasis-desert system (MODS). We first simulated land use changes for the period of 2015–2035 in Altay Prefecture under three different scenarios: business as usual (BAU...

Leveraging PET to image folate receptor α therapy of an antibody-drug conjugate

BackgroundThe folate receptor α (FRα)-targeting antibody-drug conjugate (ADC), IMGN853, shows great antitumor activity against FRα-expressing tumors in vivo, but patient selection and consequently therapy outcome are based on immunohistochemistry. The aim of this study is to develop an antibody-derived immuno-PET imaging agent strategy for targeting FRα in ovarian cancer as a...

Mechanisms of Osteoarthritis (OA) Pain

Purpose of ReviewOsteoarthritis (OA) is a major cause of pain and disability worldwide. There is, however, a relatively poor correlation between the severity of OA based on plain radiograph changes and symptoms. In this review, we consider the mechanisms of pain in OA.Recent FindingsIt is now widely recognised that OA is a disease of the whole joint. Data from large observational...

ARD1 contributes to IKKβ-mediated breast cancer tumorigenesis

The expression of IκB kinase β (IKKβ) promotes the growth of breast cancer cells. Meanwhile, IKKβ mediates the phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of arrest-defective protein 1 (ARD1). However, the relationship between IKKβ and ARD1 in the occurrence of breast cancer has not been reported. In this study, we found that IKKβ not only acts directly on mammalian target of...