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Truth, knowledge, and the standard of proof in criminal law

Could it be right to convict and punish defendants using only statistical evidence? In this paper, I argue that it is not and explain why it would be wrong. This is difficult to do because there is a powerful argument for thinking that we should convict and punish defendants using statistical evidence. It looks as if the relevant cases are cases of decision under risk and it seems ...

The use of test scores from large-scale assessment surveys: psychometric and statistical considerations

Background Economists are making increasing use of measures of student achievement obtained through large-scale survey assessments such as NAEP, TIMSS, and PISA. The construction of these measures, employing plausible value (PV) methodology, is quite different from that of the more familiar test scores associated with assessments such as the SAT or ACT. These differences have ...

A Scoping Review of Ultrasound Teaching in Undergraduate Medical Education

Introduction Increasingly, medical schools are integrating Point of Care Ultrasound (POCUS) into their curricula. This review investigated the available literature on how best to integrate POCUS in the teaching of medical students and the benefits of doing so. Methods Given the heterogeneous literature that has emerged on POCUS education, a scoping review was conducted. Relevant ...

General response of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to desiccation: A new role for the virulence factors sopD and sseD in survival

Salmonella can survive for long periods under extreme desiccation conditions. This stress tolerance poses a risk for food safety, but relatively little is known about the molecular and cellular regulation of this adaptation mechanism. To determine the genetic components involved in Salmonella’s cellular response to desiccation, we performed a global transcriptomic analysis ...

Two-color, one-photon uncaging of glutamate and GABA

Neuronal cells receive a variety of excitatory and inhibitory signals which they process to generate an output signal. In order to study the interaction between excitatory and inhibitory receptors with exogenously applied transmitters in the same preparation, two caging chromophores attached to glutamate and GABA were developed that were selectively photolyzed by different ...

Cross-talk between high light stress and plant defence to the two-spotted spider mite in Arabidopsis thaliana

Little is known about how plants deal with arthropod herbivores under the fluctuating light intensity and spectra which occur in natural environments. Moreover, the role of simultaneous stress such as excess light (EL) in the regulation of plant responses to herbivores is poorly characterized. In the current study, we focused on a mite-herbivore, specifically, the two-spotted ...

Cardiac cycle-synchronized electrical muscle stimulator for lower limb training with the potential to reduce the heart's pumping workload

Background The lower limb muscle may play an important role in decreasing the heart’s pumping workload. Aging and inactivity cause atrophy and weakness of the muscle, leading to a loss of the heart-assisting role. An electrical lower limb muscle stimulator can prevent atrophy and weakness more effectively than conventional resistance training; however, it has been reported to ...