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Quantitative approach for the risk assessment of African swine fever and Classical swine fever introduction into the United States through legal imports of pigs and swine products

The US livestock safety strongly depends on its capacity to prevent the introduction of Transboundary Animal Diseases (TADs). Therefore, accurate and updated information on the location and origin of those potential TADs risks is essential, so preventive measures as market restrictions can be put on place. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the current risk of ...

Dose and timing of injections for effective cyclosporine A pretreatment before renal ischemia reperfusion in mice

Background There is experimental evidence that lethal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is largely due to mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening, which can be prevented by cyclosporine A (CsA). The aim of our study is to show that a higher dose of CsA (10 mg/kg) injected just before ischemia or a lower dose of CsA (3 mg/kg) injected further in advance of ischemia ...

The association of post-discharge adverse events with timely follow-up visits after hospital discharge

Objective There has been little research to examine the association of post-discharge adverse events (AEs) with timely follow-up visits after hospital discharge. We aimed to examine whether having a timely follow-up outpatient visit would reduce the risk for post-discharge AEs. Methods This was a methods study of patients at risk for post-discharge AEs from December 2011 through ...

Assessment of photocatalytic potentiality and determination of ecotoxicity (using plant model for better environmental applicability) of synthesized copper, copper oxide and copper-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles

NPs synthesis, characterization and azo-dye degradation A facile cost effective wet chemical method of synthesis is proposed for Cu-NPs, CuO-NPs and Cu-doped ZnO-NPs. The nanomaterials are opto-physically characterized for nano standard quality. Cu-doped ZnO-NPs based catalytic system is found to possess most efficient photocatalytic activity in degradation of two organic azo-dyes ...

Hybrid connectivity restoration in wireless sensor and actor networks

Wireless sensor and actor networks are becoming more and more popular in the recent years. Each WSAN consists of numerous sensors and a few actors working collaboratively to carry out specific tasks. Unfortunately, actors are prone to failure due to harsh deployment environments and constrained power, which may break network connectivity resulting in disjoint components. Thus, ...

Chaotic itinerancy within the coupled dynamics between a physical body and neural oscillator networks

Chaotic itinerancy is a phenomenon in which the state of a nonlinear dynamical system spontaneously explores and attracts certain states in a state space. From this perspective, the diverse behavior of animals and its spontaneous transitions lead to a complex coupled dynamical system, including a physical body and a brain. Herein, a series of simulations using different types of ...

Potential distribution of pine wilt disease under future climate change scenarios

Pine wilt disease (PWD) constitutes a serious threat to pine forests. Since development depends on temperature and drought, there is a concern that future climate change could lead to the spread of PWD infections. We evaluated the risk of PWD in 21 susceptible Pinus species on a global scale. The MB index, which represents the sum of the difference between the mean monthly ...

Non-invasive volumetric analysis of asymptomatic hands using a 3-D scanner

Hand swelling is one of the symptoms often seen in practice, but none of the available morphometric methods can quickly and efficiently quantify hand volume in an objective manner, and the current gold-standard volume measurement requires immersion in water, which can be difficult to use. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the accuracy of using 3-dimensional (3-D) scanning to measure ...

C.H. Waddington’s differences with the creators of the modern evolutionary synthesis: a tale of two genes

In 2011, Peterson suggested that the main reason why C.H. Waddington was essentially ignored by the framers of the modern evolutionary synthesis in the 1950s was because they were Cartesian reductionists and mathematical population geneticists while he was a Whiteheadian organicist and experimental geneticist who worked with Drosophila. This paper suggests a further reason that can ...

Prevalence of visual impairment and outcomes of cataract surgery in Chaonan, South China

Purpose To estimate the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment (VI), and report the outcomes of cataract surgery in Chaonan Region, Guangdong Province, southern China Design Cross-sectional population-based survey Participants A total of 3484 participants including 1397 men (40.1%) and 2087 women (59.9%) aged ≥50 years were examined (94.2% response rate). Method A ...

Prenylated flavonoid morusin protects against TNBS-induced colitis in rats

Morusin is a prenylated flavonoid isolated from the root bark of Morus alba. Many studies have shown the ability of flavonoids to act as anti-inflammatory agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of morusin on experimentally colitis induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzensulfonic acid in Wistar rats and to compare it with sulfasalazine, a drug conventionally used in the ...

Collecting near mature and immature orchid seeds for ex situ conservation: ‘in vitro collecting’ as a case study

Background Lack of phenological information and efficient collecting methods are considered impediments for orchid seed collecting. This leads to opportunistic collecting as part of general seed collecting schedules that may last few weeks especially in remote areas. The study explored the feasibility of collecting near mature and immature seeds to support conservation action ...

Health financing policies in Sub-Saharan Africa: government ownership or donors’ influence? A scoping review of policymaking processes

Background The rise on the international scene of advocacy for universal health coverage (UHC) was accompanied by the promotion of a variety of health financing policies. Major donors presented health insurance, user fee exemption, and results-based financing policies as relevant instruments for achieving UHC in Sub-Saharan Africa. The “donor-driven” push for policies aiming at UHC ...

Stool consistency is significantly associated with pain perception

Background Commensal as well as pathogenic bacteria can influence a variety of gut functions, thereby leading to constipation and diarrhea in severe cases. In fact, several researchers have reported evidence supporting the association between stool consistency or constipation and the Gut microbiome (GM) composition and dysbiosis. GM influences the human health and disease via the ...

China’s engagement with development assistance for health in Africa

Background As an emerging donor in health related development across the world, particularly towards Africa, the People’s Republic of China (PRC) has been increasing its influence within the field of global public health over the past few decades. Yet between the period of 2000 and 2013, little is known about the scope, scale and priority of China’s grant-making programs. Methods ...

Thermally Stable Nanocrystalline Steel

Two novel nanocrystalline steels were designed to withstand elevated temperatures without catastrophic microstructural changes. In the most successful alloy, a large quantity of nickel was added to stabilize austenite and allow a reduction in the carbon content. A 50 kg cast of the novel alloy was produced and used to verify the formation of nanocrystalline bainite. Synchrotron ...

Molecular phylogeny and systematics of native North American lumbricid earthworms (Clitellata: Megadrili)

The family Lumbricidae is arguably the most well-known and well-studied earthworm group due to its dominance in the European earthworm fauna and its invasion in temperate regions worldwide. However, its North American members, especially the genus Bimastos Moore, 1893, are poorly understood. We revised the systematics of the genus Bimastos and tested the hypothesis of the monophyly ...

Characterization of neurons in the primate medial intraparietal area reveals a joint representation of intended reach direction and amplitude

To support accurate memory-guided reaching, the brain must represent both the direction and amplitude of reaches in a movement plan. Several cortical areas have been shown to represent the direction of a planned reaching movement, but the neuronal representation of reach amplitude is still unclear, especially in sensory-motor integration areas. To investigate this, we recorded from ...

Hospital Workload for Weapon-Wounded Females Treated by the International Committee of the Red Cross: More Work Needed than for Males

Background Civilians constitute 33–51% of victims in armed conflicts. Several reports on civilian injuries exist, but few have focused on injuries afflicting females. We analyzed routinely collected data on weapon-related injuries from the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) hospital in northwestern Pakistan in order to define injury patterns and types of surgical ...