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Chemical effects on the sliding friction of Ag and Au(111)

We have investigated the sliding friction behavior of metallic couples with different enthalpy of mixing or reaction by friction force microscopy. Comparing the friction behavior of miscible and immiscible couples we find that in the first case friction is governed by adhesion while the shear strength is low (τ = 3–6 MPa). In the latter case of immiscible couples, adhesion is found ...

Accessibility and Usability of Government Websites in Tanzania

The government of Tanzania has been embracing information systems specifically websites in order to widen access to government services, lower administrative costs, and to increase public participation in decision making. As a result, almost every ministry, department, and agency (MDA) has developed a website of different kind. However, the majority of existing websites were ...

VFR-into-IMC: An Analysis of Two Training Protocols on Weather-Related Posttest Scores

According to the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association Air Safety Institute, 264 accidents were identified as continued visual flight rules (VFR) into instrument meteorological conditions (IMC), during the past ten years. Approximately 89% of those VFR-into-IMC accidents were fatal, causing hundreds of deaths. VFR-into-IMC has been a major concern for the general aviation ...

Individual differences in eye blink rate predict both transient and tonic pupil responses during reversal learning

The pupil response under constant illumination can be used as a marker of cognitive processes. In the past, pupillary responses have been studied in the context of arousal and decision-making. However, recent work involving Parkinson's patients suggested that pupillary responses are additionally affected by reward sensitivity. Here, we build on these findings by examining how pupil ...

Tree water potentials supporting an explanation for the occurrence of Vachellia erioloba in the Namib Desert (Namibia)

Background Site-vegetation relations of Vachellia erioloba, Faidherbia albida, Euclea pseudebenus and Tamarix usneoides in two contrasting locations in the Namib Desert (Namibia) were evaluated with the goal to relate soil water availability to the occurrence of trees under hyper-arid conditions. Methods Plant water potentials were measured using a pressure chamber in the field. ...

Identification and characterization of two linear epitope motifs in hepatitis E virus ORF2 protein

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for hepatitis E, which represents a global public health problem. HEV genotypes 3 and 4 are reported to be zoonotic, and animals are monitored for HEV infection in the interests of public hygiene and food safety. The development of novel diagnostic methods and vaccines for HEV in humans is thus important topics of research. Opening reading ...

Optimizing the role of limbal explant size and source in determining the outcomes of limbal transplantation: An in vitro study

Purpose Simple limbal epithelial transplantation (SLET) and cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation (CLET) are proven clinical techniques for treating limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). However, the ideal size and number of the limbal explants required for transplantation has not been clearly elucidated. This in vitro study aimed to determine the optimal limbal explant size ...

Medication adherence, medical record accuracy, and medication exposure in real-world patients using comprehensive medication monitoring

Background Poor adherence to medication regimens and medical record inconsistencies result in incomplete knowledge of medication therapy in polypharmacy patients. By quantitatively identifying medications in the blood of patients and reconciling detected medications with the medical record, we have defined the severity of this knowledge gap and created a path toward optimizing ...

Clinical characteristics and survival of lung cancer patients associated with multiple primary malignancies

Objectives To investigate the characteristics and survival of lung cancer patients with additional malignant primary cancers. Methods Records of lung cancer patients newly diagnosed in Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital between January 2000 and January 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with second primary lung cancer and those with lung cancer only were included for detailed ...

Universal detection of phytoplasmas and Xylella spp. by TaqMan singleplex and multiplex real-time PCR with dual priming oligonucleotides

Phytoplasmas and Xylella spp. are bacteria that cause many economically important plant diseases worldwide. TaqMan probe-based quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays have been utilized to universally detect phytoplasmas or Xylella fastidiosa. To develop a superior universal qPCR method, we used a dual priming oligonucleotide (DPO) with two annealing sites as ...

High genetic diversity and demographic history of captive Siamese and Saltwater crocodiles suggest the first step toward the establishment of a breeding and reintroduction program in Thailand

The Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) and Saltwater crocodile (C. porosus) are two of the most endangered animals in Thailand. Their numbers have been reduced severely by hunting and habitat fragmentation. A reintroduction plan involving captive-bred populations that are used commercially is important and necessary as a conservation strategy to aid in the recovery of wild ...

Cash transfers and female labor force participation: the case of AUH in Argentina

In this paper, we estimate the impact on female labor force participation of a massive conditional cash transfer program—Universal Child Allowance, AUH—launched in Argentina in 2009. We identify the intention-to-treat effect by comparing eligible and non-eligible women over time through a diff-in-diff methodology. The results suggest a negative and economically significant effect ...

Enhanced Mutant Screening in One-step PCR-based Multiple Site-directed Plasmid Mutagenesis by Introduction of Silent Restriction Sites for Structural and Functional Study of Proteins

Site-directed mutagenesis (SDM) has been widely used for studying the structure and function of proteins. A one-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based multiple site-directed plasmid mutagenesis method with extended non-overlapping sequence at the 3′ end of the primer increases the PCR amplification efficiency and the capacity of multi-site mutagenesis. Here, we introduced ...