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Plasma HIV Viral Rebound following Protocol-Indicated Cessation of ART Commenced in Primary and Chronic HIV Infection

Objectives The magnitude of HIV viral rebound following ART cessation has consequences for clinical outcome and onward transmission. We compared plasma viral load (pVL) rebound after stopping ART initiated in primary (PHI) and chronic HIV infection (CHI). Design Two populations with protocol-indicated ART cessation from SPARTAC (PHI, n = 182) and SMART (CHI, n = 1450) trials. ...

Hidden Drug Resistant HIV to Emerge in the Era of Universal Treatment Access in Southeast Asia

Background Universal access to first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV infection is becoming more of a reality in most low and middle income countries in Asia. However, second-line therapies are relatively scarce. Methods and Findings We developed a mathematical model of an HIV epidemic in a Southeast Asian setting and used it to forecast the impact of treatment plans, ...

Evidence of Associations between Cytokine Genes and Subjective Reports of Sleep Disturbance in Oncology Patients and Their Family Caregivers

The purposes of this study were to identify distinct latent classes of individuals based on subjective reports of sleep disturbance; to examine differences in demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics between the latent classes; and to evaluate for variations in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes between the latent classes. Among 167 oncology outpatients with ...

A bichromatic fluorescent reporter for cell-based screens of alternative splicing

Alternative splicing is the primary source of proteome complexity in metazoans and its regulation shapes the proteome in response to shifting physiological requirements. We developed a bichromatic splicing reporter that uses a peculiar feature of some fluorescent protein coding regions to express two different fluorescent proteins from a single alternative splicing event. The ...

HIV research in Australia: linking basic research findings with clinical and public health outcomes

Despite a population of only 20 million and sustained low prevalence of HIV infection in Australia, Australian researchers have provided many substantial original findings to the fields of HIV pathogenesis, treatment and prevention. More recently, Australian clinicians and scientists have turned their attention to assisting other countries in developing effective responses, ...

Multiple domains control the subcellular localization and activity of ETR-3, a regulator of nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA processing events

Andrea N. Ladd 0 Thomas A. Cooper ) 0 0 Department of Pathology, Baylor College of Medicine , One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030 , USA - Embryonic lethal abnormal vision (ELAV) type RNA binding

A multi-level system quality improvement intervention to reduce racial disparities in hypertension care and control: study protocol

Background Racial disparities in blood pressure control have been well documented in the United States. Research suggests that many factors contribute to this disparity, including barriers to care at patient, clinician, healthcare system, and community levels. To date, few interventions aimed at reducing hypertension disparities have addressed factors at all of these levels. This ...

Trends in detectable viral load by calendar year in the Australian HIV observational database

Background Recent papers have suggested that expanded combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) through lower viral load may be a strategy to reduce HIV transmission at a population level. We assessed calendar trends in detectable viral load in patients recruited to the Australian HIV Observational Database who were receiving cART. Methods Patients were included in analyses if ...

Simplification of Antiretroviral Therapy with Tenofovir-Emtricitabine or Abacavir-Lamivudine: A Randomized, 96-Week Trial

Background. There are 2 once-daily, fixed-dose-combination, dual-nucleoside analogue tablets: tenofovir 300 mg-emtricitabine 200 mg (TDF-FTC) and abacavir 600 mg-lamivudine 300 mg (ABC-3TC). Which fixed-dose-combination tablet is more effective and safe is uncertain. Methods. We compared TDF-FTC and ABC-3TC in a randomized, open-label, 96-week trial in which either ...

The influence of task requirements on priming in object decision and matching

We argue that task requirements can be the determinant in generating different results in studies on visual object recognition. We investigated priming for novel visual objects in three implicit memory tasks. A study-test design was employed in which participants first viewed line drawings of unfamiliar objects and later made different decisions about structural aspects of the ...

Mediators of Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses Differentially Affect Immune Restoration Disease Associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in HIV Patients Beginning Antiretroviral Therapy

Background. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in human immunodeficiency virus patients with treated or unrecognized Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection may result in tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) or ART-associated tuberculosis (ART-TB), respectively. Both conditions appear to be immune restoration disease but their ...

Inhibition of Telomerase Activity by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Nucleos(t)ide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: A Potential Factor Contributing to HIV-Associated Accelerated Aging

Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients on combination active antiretroviral therapy (cART) are at increased risk of age-related complications. We hypothesized that nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) may contribute to accelerated aging in HIV-infected individuals on cART via inhibition of telomerase activity. Methods. Telomerase activity ...

Global regulation of alternative splicing during myogenic differentiation

alternative splicing in the human genome? Trends Genet ., 20 , 68 - 71 . 22. Castle , J.C. , Zhang , C. , Shah , J.K. , Kulkarni , A.V. , Kalsotra , A. , Cooper , T.A. and Johnson , J.M. ( 2008 ) Expression of

Evolution of duplicated IgH loci in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar

Background The Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) locus possesses two parallel IgH isoloci (IGH-A and IGH-B), that are related to the genomic duplication event in the family Salmonidae. These duplicated IgH loci in Atlantic salmon provide a unique opportunity to examine the mechanisms of genome diversity and genome evolution of the IgH loci in ...

EGF regulates survivin stability through the Raf-1/ERK pathway in insulin-secreting pancreatic β-cells

Background Postnatal expansion of the pancreatic β-cell mass is required to maintain glucose homeostasis immediately after birth. This β-cell expansion is regulated by multiple growth factors, including glucose, insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). These mitogens signal through several downstream pathways (AKT, ERK, STAT3, and JNK) to ...

Intensification of Antiretroviral Therapy With Raltegravir or Addition of Hyperimmune Bovine Colostrum in HIV-Infected Patients With Suboptimal CD4+ T-Cell Response: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Background. Despite virally suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), some HIV-infected patients exhibit suboptimal CD4+ T-cell recovery. This study aimed to determine the effect of intensification of cART with raltegravir or addition of hyperimmune bovine colostrum (HIBC) on CD4+ T-cell count in such patients. Methods. We randomized 75 patients to 4 treatment groups ...

The population of Milky Way satellites in the Λ cold dark matter cosmology

We present a model for the satellites of the Milky Way in which galaxy formation is followed using semi-analytic techniques applied to the six high-resolution N-body simulations of galactic haloes of the Aquarius project. The model, calculated using the galform code, incorporates improved treatments of the relevant physics in the Λ cold dark matter cosmogony, particularly a ...

Male circumcision for HIV prevention: current evidence and implementation in sub-Saharan Africa

Sokal 4 Jeffrey D Klausner 3 Ross Appleton Nelson Sewankambo David A Cooper John Bongaarts Guy de Bruyn Alex D Wodak Joya Banerjee 0 Department of African-American Studies, Northeastern University

Expression, localization and tau exon 10 splicing activity of the brain RNA-binding protein TNRC4

Elucidating the mechanisms of alternative splicing in the brain is a prerequisite to the understanding of the pathogenesis of major neurological diseases linked to impairment of pre-mRNA alternative splicing. The gene trinucleotide repeat-containing 4 (TNRC4) is predicted to encode a member of the CELF (CUG-BP- and ETR-3-like factors) family of RNA-binding proteins containing a ...