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Autophagy in Muscle of Glucose-Infusion Hyperglycemia Rats and Streptozotocin-Induced Hyperglycemia Rats via Selective Activation of m-TOR or FoxO3

Autophagy is a conserved process in eukaryotes required for metabolism and is involved in diverse diseases. To investigate autophagy in skeletal muscle under hyperglycemia status, we established two hyperglycemia-rat models that differ in their circulating insulin levels, by glucose infusion and singe high-dose streptozotocin injection. We then detected expression of autophagy...

Epidemiology and associations with climatic conditions of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae infections among Chinese children hospitalized with acute respiratory infections

Background The incidence of severe acute respiratory tract infections in children caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae (syn. Schizoplasma pneumoniae) and Chlamydophila pneumoniae (formerly Chlamydia pneumoniae) varies greatly from year to year and place to place around the world. This study investigated the epidemiology of M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae infections among children...

IL-4 Suppresses the Responses to TLR7 and TLR9 Stimulation and Increases the Permissiveness to Retroviral Infection of Murine Conventional Dendritic Cells

Th2-inducing pathological conditions such as parasitic diseases increase susceptibility to viral infections through yet unclear mechanisms. We have previously reported that IL-4, a pivotal Th2 cytokine, suppresses the response of murine bone-marrow-derived conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) and splenic DCs to Type I interferons (IFNs). Here, we analyzed cDC responses to TLR7 and...

A retrospective study of microscopic polyangiitis patients presenting with pulmonary fibrosis in China

Zuo jun Xu 1 0 1 Shuaifuyuan Street, Beijing , Dongcheng District 100730 , China 1 Department of Respiratory Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking

Biogenesis of C-Glycosyl Flavones and Profiling of Flavonoid Glycosides in Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera)

Flavonoids in nine tissues of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertner were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and HPLC-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MSn). Thirty-eight flavonoids were identified; eleven C-glycosides and five O-glycosides were discovered for the first time in N. nucifera. Most...

Targeting Human Telomeric G-Quadruplex DNA and Inhibition of Telomerase Activity With [(dmb)2Ru(obip)Ru(dmb)2]4+

Inhibition of telomerase by inducing/stabilizing G-quadruplex formation is a promising strategy to design new anticancer drugs. We synthesized and characterized a new dinuclear complex [(dmb)2Ru(obip)Ru(dmb)2]4+ (dmb = 4,4’-dimethyl-2,2’-bipyridine, obip = (2-(2-pyridyl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline) with high affinity for both antiparallel and mixed parallel / antiparallel...

Fabrication of Anti-reflecting Si Nano-structures with Low Aspect Ratio by Nano-sphere Lithography Technique

Nano-structured photon management is currently an interesting topic since it can enhance the optical absorption and reduce the surface reflection which will improve the performance of many kinds of optoelectronic devices, such as Si-based solar cells and light emitting diodes. Here, we report the fabrication of periodically nano-patterned Si structures by using polystyrene nano...

cAMP Responsive Element Binding Protein-1 Is a Transcription Factor of Lysosomal-Associated Protein Transmembrane-4 beta in Human Breast Cancer Cells

Lysosomal-associated protein transmembrane-4 beta (LAPTM4B) is a potential proto-oncogene, whose overexpression is involved in cancer occurrence and progression. Its transcript is up-regulated in various types of solid tumors including breast cancer. However, its transcriptional regulation mechanism is still unclear. To investigate the mechanism of transcriptional regulation of...

Effects of Aspect on Clonal Reproduction and Biomass Allocation of Layering Modules of Nitraria tangutorum in Nebkha Dunes

The formation of many nebkha dunes relies on the layering of clonal plants. The microenvironmental conditions of such phytogenic nebkha are heterogeneous depending on the aspect and slope. Exploring the effects of aspect on clonal reproduction and biomass allocation can be useful in understanding the ecological adaptation of species. We hypothesized that on the windward side...

The lncRNA Firre anchors the inactive X chromosome to the nucleolus by binding CTCF and maintains H3K27me3 methylation

Background In mammals, X chromosome genes are present in one copy in males and two in females. To balance the dosage of X-linked gene expression between the sexes, one of the X chromosomes in females is silenced. X inactivation is initiated by upregulation of the lncRNA (long non-coding RNA) Xist and recruitment of specific chromatin modifiers. The inactivated X chromosome...

Population-Specific Regulation of Chmp2b by Lbx1 during Onset of Synaptogenesis in Lateral Association Interneurons

Chmp2b is closely related to Vps2, a key component of the yeast protein complex that creates the intralumenal vesicles of multivesicular bodies. Dominant negative mutations in Chmp2b cause autophagosome accumulation and neurodegenerative disease. Loss of Chmp2b causes failure of dendritic spine maturation in cultured neurons. The homeobox gene Lbx1 plays an essential role in...

Human adipose-derived stem cells partially rescue the stroke syndromes by promoting spatial learning and memory in mouse middle cerebral artery occlusion model

Liang 9 Guo-Tong Xu 7 Hongwen Zhu 6 11 Zhengliang Gao 4 10 Jie Ma 0 Jun Xu 2 Xu Chen 3 5 0 Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Xinhua Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University , Shanghai 200092 , China

Seasonal Trophic Niche Shift and Cascading Effect of a Generalist Predator Fish

Few studies have examined how foraging niche shift of a predator over time cascade down to local prey communities. Here we examine patterns of temporal foraging niche shifts of a generalist predator (yellow catfish, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) and the abundance of prey communities in a subtropical lake. We predicted that the nature of these interactions would have implications for...

Synthesis of l-Ascorbic Acid Lactone Derivatives

A small focused library which comprised of l-AA lactone derivatives was built with a facile method. This reported method was optimized by modifying the acidity of the solvent. As a result, 12 l-AA lactones were synthesized. Among these lactones, lactones 8–12 were new compounds. The cytotoxicity of these synthetic compounds were investigated.

High YKL-40 Serum Concentration Is Correlated with Prognosis of Chinese Patients with Breast Cancer

This study aimed to investigate the association between serum YKL-40 and prognosis of breast cancer in a Chinese population. Expression of YKL-40 of 120 Chinese patients with breast cancer and 30 controls (benign breast lesions) was measured in tumor tissue by immunohistochemistry and in serum by ELISA. Differences in YKL-40 positivity grouped by specific patients...

Ionic Mechanisms of Endogenous Bursting in CA3 Hippocampal Pyramidal Neurons: A Model Study

A critical property of some neurons is burst firing, which in the hippocampus plays a primary role in reliable transmission of electrical signals. However, bursting may also contribute to synchronization of electrical activity in networks of neurons, a hallmark of epilepsy. Understanding the ionic mechanisms of bursting in a single neuron, and how mutations associated with...

The Mechanism of Poly-Galloyl-Glucoses Preventing Influenza A Virus Entry into Host Cells

Hemagglutinin (HA) is essential for Influenza A virus infection, but its diversity of subtypes presents an obstacle to developing broad-spectrum HA inhibitors. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which poly-galloyl glucose (pGG) analogs inhibit influenza hemagglutinin (HA) in vitro and in silico. We found that (1) star-shaped pGG analogs exhibit HA...

Uncovering Global Icebergs in Distributed Streams: Results and Implications

California, Berkeley. Her research interests include Internet measurements, network management, anomaly detection, and online social networks. Dr. Jun Xu is an Associate Professor in the College of Computing

Characterization of mouse brain microRNAs after infection with cyst-forming Toxoplasma gondii

Background The obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii can interfere with host cell signaling pathways, alter host defense systems and cell cycle control, and establish a chronic infection in the central nervous system. T. gondii infection may alter the expression profile of host microRNAs (miRNAs) which have key regulatory functions at the post-transcriptional level...

Chlamydia felis exposure in companion dogs and cats in Lanzhou, China: a public health concern

Background Chlamydiaceae is a family of obligate intracellular pathogens with a worldwide distribution in many animal species, including humans. No information exists on the prevalence of Chlamydia felis infections in cats and dogs in Lanzhou, the geographical center of China. The aim of this study was to carry out a census of cats and dogs in Lanzhou and document the...