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Trends in detectable viral load by calendar year in the Australian HIV observational database

Background Recent papers have suggested that expanded combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) through lower viral load may be a strategy to reduce HIV transmission at a population level. We assessed calendar trends in detectable viral load in patients recruited to the Australian HIV Observational Database who were receiving cART. Methods Patients were included in analyses if...

Simplification of Antiretroviral Therapy with Tenofovir-Emtricitabine or Abacavir-Lamivudine: A Randomized, 96-Week Trial

Background. There are 2 once-daily, fixed-dose-combination, dual-nucleoside analogue tablets: tenofovir 300 mg-emtricitabine 200 mg (TDF-FTC) and abacavir 600 mg-lamivudine 300 mg (ABC-3TC). Which fixed-dose-combination tablet is more effective and safe is uncertain. Methods. We compared TDF-FTC and ABC-3TC in a randomized, open-label, 96-week trial in which either fixed-dose...

Mediators of Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses Differentially Affect Immune Restoration Disease Associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in HIV Patients Beginning Antiretroviral Therapy

Background. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in human immunodeficiency virus patients with treated or unrecognized Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection may result in tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) or ART-associated tuberculosis (ART-TB), respectively. Both conditions appear to be immune restoration disease but their...

Global regulation of alternative splicing during myogenic differentiation

alternative splicing in the human genome? Trends Genet ., 20 , 68 - 71 . 22. Castle , J.C. , Zhang , C. , Shah , J.K. , Kulkarni , A.V. , Kalsotra , A. , Cooper , T.A. and Johnson , J.M. ( 2008 ) Expression of

Finding signals that regulate alternative splicing in the post-genomic era

Alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs is central to the generation of diversity from the relatively small number of genes in metazoan genomes. Auxiliary cis elements and trans-acting factors are required for the recognition of constitutive and alternatively spliced exons and their inclusion in pre-mRNA. Here, we discuss the regulatory elements that direct alternative splicing and how...

A multi-level system quality improvement intervention to reduce racial disparities in hypertension care and control: study protocol

Background Racial disparities in blood pressure control have been well documented in the United States. Research suggests that many factors contribute to this disparity, including barriers to care at patient, clinician, healthcare system, and community levels. To date, few interventions aimed at reducing hypertension disparities have addressed factors at all of these levels. This...

Evolution of duplicated IgH loci in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar

Background The Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) locus possesses two parallel IgH isoloci (IGH-A and IGH-B), that are related to the genomic duplication event in the family Salmonidae. These duplicated IgH loci in Atlantic salmon provide a unique opportunity to examine the mechanisms of genome diversity and genome evolution of the IgH loci in...

EGF regulates survivin stability through the Raf-1/ERK pathway in insulin-secreting pancreatic β-cells

Background Postnatal expansion of the pancreatic β-cell mass is required to maintain glucose homeostasis immediately after birth. This β-cell expansion is regulated by multiple growth factors, including glucose, insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). These mitogens signal through several downstream pathways (AKT, ERK, STAT3, and JNK) to...

Third Party Liability or the False Claims Act: It Is Time for Consultants to Pay the Price for Their Bad Advice, 29 J. Marshall L. Rev. 923 (1996)

By Neal A. Cooper, Published on 01/01/96 ... Medicare system, the Hillary and Newt Doles of this country will continue to carry the full burden on behalf of all of the culprits.179 Neal A. Cooper 178. See supra notes 112-26 for a discussion of the

Expression, localization and tau exon 10 splicing activity of the brain RNA-binding protein TNRC4

Elucidating the mechanisms of alternative splicing in the brain is a prerequisite to the understanding of the pathogenesis of major neurological diseases linked to impairment of pre-mRNA alternative splicing. The gene trinucleotide repeat-containing 4 (TNRC4) is predicted to encode a member of the CELF (CUG-BP- and ETR-3-like factors) family of RNA-binding proteins containing a...

Membrane Type-1 Matrix Metalloproteinases and Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-2 RNA Levels Mimic Each Other during Xenopus laevis Metamorphosis

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their endogenous inhibitors TIMPs (tissue inhibitors of MMPs), are two protein families that work together to remodel the extracellular matrix (ECM). TIMPs serve not only to inhibit MMP activity, but also aid in the activation of MMPs that are secreted as inactive zymogens. Xenopus laevis metamorphosis is an ideal model for studying MMP and...

Intensification of Antiretroviral Therapy With Raltegravir or Addition of Hyperimmune Bovine Colostrum in HIV-Infected Patients With Suboptimal CD4+ T-Cell Response: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Background. Despite virally suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), some HIV-infected patients exhibit suboptimal CD4+ T-cell recovery. This study aimed to determine the effect of intensification of cART with raltegravir or addition of hyperimmune bovine colostrum (HIBC) on CD4+ T-cell count in such patients. Methods. We randomized 75 patients to 4 treatment groups...

Inhibition of Telomerase Activity by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Nucleos(t)ide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: A Potential Factor Contributing to HIV-Associated Accelerated Aging

Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients on combination active antiretroviral therapy (cART) are at increased risk of age-related complications. We hypothesized that nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) may contribute to accelerated aging in HIV-infected individuals on cART via inhibition of telomerase activity. Methods. Telomerase...

A hypomorphic allele of dab1 reveals regional differences in reelin-Dab1 signaling during brain development

Tara M. Herrick 0 Jonathan A. Cooper ) 0 0 Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center , 1100 Fairview Avenue N, Seattle, WA 98109 , USA signaling during brain development - The disabled 1 (Dab1) p80

The population of Milky Way satellites in the Λ cold dark matter cosmology

We present a model for the satellites of the Milky Way in which galaxy formation is followed using semi-analytic techniques applied to the six high-resolution N-body simulations of galactic haloes of the Aquarius project. The model, calculated using the galform code, incorporates improved treatments of the relevant physics in the Λ cold dark matter cosmogony, particularly a self...

Male circumcision for HIV prevention: current evidence and implementation in sub-Saharan Africa

Sokal 4 Jeffrey D Klausner 3 Ross Appleton Nelson Sewankambo David A Cooper John Bongaarts Guy de Bruyn Alex D Wodak Joya Banerjee 0 Department of African-American Studies, Northeastern University

Structural and Biochemical Characterization of SrcA, a Multi-Cargo Type III Secretion Chaperone in Salmonella Required for Pathogenic Association with a Host

Many Gram-negative bacteria colonize and exploit host niches using a protein apparatus called a type III secretion system (T3SS) that translocates bacterial effector proteins into host cells where their functions are essential for pathogenesis. A suite of T3SS-associated chaperone proteins bind cargo in the bacterial cytosol, establishing protein interaction networks needed for...

Variants of ADRA2A are associated with fasting glucose, blood pressure, body mass index and type 2 diabetes risk: meta-analysis of four prospective studies

Aims/hypothesis We quantified the effect of ADRA2A (encoding α-2 adrenergic receptor) variants on metabolic traits and type 2 diabetes risk, as reported in four studies. Methods Genotype data for ADRA2A single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs553668 and rs10885122 were analysed in >17,000 individuals (1,307 type 2 diabetes cases) with regard to metabolic traits and type 2...

ANGPTL4 variants E40K and T266M are associated with lower fasting triglyceride levels in Non-Hispanic White Americans from the Look AHEAD Clinical Trial

Background Elevated triglyceride levels are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (Angptl4) is a metabolic factor that raises plasma triglyceride levels by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase (LPL). In non-diabetic individuals, the ANGPTL4 coding variant E40K has been associated with lower plasma triglyceride levels while the T266M variant has been...