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Accurate HLA type inference using a weighted similarity graph

Background The human leukocyte antigen system (HLA) contains many highly variable genes. HLA genes play an important role in the human immune system, and HLA gene matching is crucial for the success of human organ transplantations. Numerous studies have demonstrated that variation in HLA genes is associated with many autoimmune, inflammatory and infectious diseases. However...

Structural Characterization of the Self-Association of the Death Domain of p75NTR

Zusen Fan 0 Tao Jiang 0 Wenqing Xu, University of Washington, United States of America 0 1 National Key Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Beijing

Identification of a 6-Cytokine Prognostic Signature in Patients with Primary Glioblastoma Harboring M2 Microglia/Macrophage Phenotype Relevance

Background Glioblastomas (GBM) are comprised of a heterogeneous population of tumor cells, immune cells, and extracellular matrix. Interactions among these different cell types and pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines may promote tumor development and progression. Aims The objective of this study was to develop a cytokine-related gene signature to improve outcome prediction for...

Exploring Codon Optimization and Response Surface Methodology to Express Biologically Active Transmembrane RANKL in E. coli

Receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-κB ligand (RANKL), a master cytokine that drives osteoclast differentiation, activation and survival, exists in both transmembrane and extracellular forms. To date, studies on physiological role of RANKL have been mainly carried out with extracellular RANKL probably due to difficulties in achieving high level expression of functional...

Nrf2 Pathway Regulates Multidrug-Resistance-Associated Protein 1 in Small Cell Lung Cancer

Although multidrug-resistance-associated protein-1 (MRP1) is a major contributor to multi-drug resistance (MDR), the regulatory mechanism of Mrp1 still remains unclear. Nrf2 is a transcription factor that regulates cellular defense response through antioxidant response elements (AREs) in normal tissues. Recently, Nrf2 has emerged as an important contributor to chemo-resistance in...

Presep: Predicting the Propensity of a Protein Being Secreted into the Supernatant when Expressed in Pichia pastoris

Pichia pastoris is commonly used for the production of recombinant proteins due to its preferential secretion of recombinant proteins, resulting in lower production costs and increased yields of target proteins. However, not all recombinant proteins can be successfully secreted in P. pastoris. A computational method that predicts the likelihood of a protein being secreted into...

SOCS3 Promoter Hypermethylation Is a Favorable Prognosticator and a Novel Indicator for G-CIMP-Positive GBM Patients

Background Hypermethylation of the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3(SOCS3) promoter has been reported to predict a poor prognosis in several cancers including glioblstoma multiforme (GBM). We explored the function of SOCS3 promoter hypermethylation in GBM cohorts, including analysis of the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), when a large number of gene loci are...

Isolation and characterization of dengue virus serotype 2 from the large dengue outbreak in Guangdong, China in 2014

Dengue has been well recognized as a global public health threat, but only sporadic epidemics and imported cases were reported in recent decades in China. Since July 2014, an unexpected large dengue outbreak has occurred in Guangdong province, China, resulting in more than 40000 patients including six deaths. To clarify and characterize the causative agent of this outbreak, the...

Tagging Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the IRF1 and IRF8 Genes and Tuberculosis Susceptibility

Genes encoding IRF1 and IRF8 protein have been proposed as candidate tuberculosis susceptibility genes. In order to elucidate whether the IRF1 and IRF8 variants were associated with tuberculosis susceptibility, we conducted a case-control study consisting of 495 controls and 452 ethnically matched cases with tuberculosis in a Chinese population. Seven haplotype tagging single...

Characterization of a Novel Dengue Serotype 4 Virus-Specific Neutralizing Epitope on the Envelope Protein Domain III

The dengue virus (DENV) envelope protein domain III (ED3) has been suggested to contain receptor recognition sites and the critical neutralizing epitopes. Up to date, relatively little work has been done on fine mapping of neutralizing epitopes on ED3 for DENV4. In this study, a novel mouse type-specific neutralizing antibody 1G6 against DENV4 was obtained with both prophylactic...

Identification of a binding motif specific to HNF4 by comparative analysis of multiple nuclear receptors

Nuclear receptors (NRs) regulate gene expression by binding specific DNA sequences consisting of AG[G/T]TCA or AGAACA half site motifs in a variety of configurations. However, those motifs/configurations alone do not adequately explain the diversity of NR function in vivo. Here, a systematic examination of DNA binding specificity by protein-binding microarrays (PBMs) of three...

N-methylnicotinamide and nicotinamide N-methyltransferase are associated with microRNA-1291-altered pancreatic carcinoma cell metabolome and suppressed tumorigenesis

The cell metabolome comprises abundant information that may be predictive of cell functions in response to epigenetic or genetic changes at different stages of cell proliferation and metastasis. An unbiased ultra-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry-based metabolomics study revealed a significantly altered metabolome for human pancreatic carcinoma PANC-1 cells with...

Determination of the Crystal Structure and Active Residues of FabV, the Enoyl-ACP Reductase from Xanthomonas oryzae

Background Enoyl-ACP reductase (ENR) catalyses the last reduction reaction in the fatty acid elongation cycle in bacteria and is a good antimicrobial target candidate. FabV is the most recently discovered class of ENR, but we lack information about the atomic structure and the key residues involved in reductase activity except for the known conserved tyrosine and lysine residues...

High-Contrast Fluorescence Imaging in Fixed and Living Cells Using Optimized Optical Switches

We present the design, synthesis and characterization of new functionalized fluorescent optical switches for rapid, all-visible light-mediated manipulation of fluorescence signals from labelled structures within living cells, and as probes for high-contrast optical lock-in detection (OLID) imaging microscopy. A triazole-substituted BIPS (TzBIPS) is identified from a rational...

Improving probe set selection for microbial community analysis by leveraging taxonomic information of training sequences

Background Population levels of microbial phylotypes can be examined using a hybridization-based method that utilizes a small set of computationally-designed DNA probes targeted to a gene common to all. Our previous algorithm attempts to select a set of probes such that each training sequence manifests a unique theoretical hybridization pattern (a binary fingerprint) to a probe...

High-performance single-chip exon capture allows accurate whole exome sequencing using the Illumina Genome Analyzer

Here we present an adaptation of NimbleGen 2.1M-probe array sequence capture for whole exome sequencing using the Illumina Genome Analyzer (GA) platform. The protocol involves two-stage library construction. The specificity of exome enrichment was approximately 80% with 95.6% even coverage of the 34 Mb target region at an average sequencing depth of 33-fold. Comparison of our...

Age-period-cohort analysis for trends in body mass index in Ireland

Background Obesity is a growing problem worldwide and can often result in a variety of negative health outcomes. In this study we aim to apply partial least squares (PLS) methodology to estimate the separate effects of age, period and cohort on the trends in obesity as measured by body mass index (BMI). Methods Using PLS we will obtain gender specific linear effects of age...

Expression of hypoxia-related markers in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors of the head and neck

Background The etiology of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs) is controversial and the prognosis is unpredictable. Previous studies have not investigated the expression of hypoxia-related markers in IMTs. Methods Between 2002 and 2012, 12 consecutive patients with histologically proven IMTs were enrolled in the study. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect GLUT-1, HIF-1...

Accelerated similarity searching and clustering of large compound sets by geometric embedding and locality sensitive hashing

Motivation: Similarity searching and clustering of chemical compounds by structural similarities are important computational approaches for identifying drug-like small molecules. Most algorithms available for these tasks are limited by their speed and scalability, and cannot handle today's large compound databases with several million entries. Results: In this article, we...

Inference of Purifying and Positive Selection in Three Subspecies of Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) from Exome Sequencing

We study genome-wide nucleotide diversity in three subspecies of extant chimpanzees using exome capture. After strict filtering, Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and indels were called and genotyped for greater than 50% of exons at a mean coverage of 35× per individual. Central chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) are the most polymorphic (nucleotide diversity, θw = 0.0023...