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Near-infrared spectroscopy monitoring during immediate transition after birth: time to obtain cerebral tissue oxygenation

Feasibility of cerebral tissue oxygenation measurements immediately after birth has been published starting with first values 2 min after birth. Aim of this study was to evaluate, the time periods from birth and from arrival at the resuscitation table to obtain the first cerebral tissue oxygenation values with two different near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) devices. The present ...

Stability and change in international policy-making: A punctuated equilibrium approach

International organizations (IOs) have developed into important policy venues beyond the state. Yet our understanding of the broader dynamics of IO policy-making is limited. This article offers the first comparative analysis of macro patterns in IO policy-making. Theoretically, we draw on punctuated equilibrium theory to develop hypotheses about stability and change in the ...

Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile in infants in Oxfordshire, UK: Risk factors for colonization and carriage, and genetic overlap with regional C. difficile infection strains

Background Approximately 30–40% of children <1 year of age are Clostridium difficile colonized, and may represent a reservoir for adult C. difficile infections (CDI). Risk factors for colonization with toxigenic versus non-toxigenic C. difficile strains and longitudinal acquisition dynamics in infants remain incompletely characterized. Methods Predominantly healthy infants (≤2 ...

Inhibitory effects of HNF4α on migration/maltransformation of hepatic progenitors: HNF4α-overexpressing hepatic progenitors for liver repopulation

Background Although they are expandable in vitro, hepatic progenitors are immature cells and share many immunomarkers with hepatocellular carcinoma, raising potential concerns regarding maltransformation after transplantation. This study investigated the effects of hepatic nuclear factor (HNF) 4α on the proliferation, migration, and maltransformation of hepatic progenitors and ...

The neglected burden of snakebites in Cameroon: a review of the epidemiology, management and public health challenges

Objectives Snakebite is an underestimated medical and surgical emergency in developing countries responsible for a high disease burden. Optimal management of snake envenomation in these resource-limited settings is precluded by several public health challenges. In this review, we discuss the disease burden of snakebites in Cameroon and the public health challenges of its management ...

A New Smart Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Sensor Based on pH-Responsive Polyacryloyl Hydrazine Capped Ag Nanoparticles

A novel pH-responsive Ag@polyacryloyl hydrazide (Ag@PAH) nanoparticle for the first time as a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate was prepared without reducing agent and end-capping reagent. Ag@PAH nanoparticles exhibited an excellent tunable detecting performance in the range from pH = 4 to pH = 9. This is explained that the swelling-shrinking behavior of responsive ...

Transcriptomic profiling of microbe–microbe interactions reveals the specific response of the biocontrol strain P. fluorescens In5 to the phytopathogen Rhizoctonia solani

Background Few studies to date report the transcriptional response of biocontrol bacteria toward phytopathogens. In order to gain insights into the potential mechanism underlying the antagonism of the antimicrobial producing strain P. fluorescens In5 against the phytopathogens Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium aphanidermatum, global RNA sequencing was performed. Methods Differential ...

Evolutionary dynamics in the fungal polarization network, a mechanistic perspective

Polarity establishment underlies proper cell cycle completion across virtually all organisms. Much progress has been made in generating an understanding of the structural and functional components of this process, especially in model species. Here we focus on the evolutionary dynamics of the fungal polarization protein network in order to determine general components and ...

Light Chain (AL) Amyloidosis: The Journey to Diagnosis

Background Light chain (AL) amyloidosis is a rare, complex disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Delays in diagnosis are common and may have detrimental consequences on patients’ prognosis. Too little is known regarding the patient journey to diagnosis. Objective The objective of this study was to describe the patient-reported journey to a correct diagnosis ...

Th17 cells are associated with protection from ventilator associated pneumonia

Background CD4+ T-helper 17 (Th17) cells and Interleukin (IL)-17A play an important role in clearing pathogens in mouse models of pneumonia. We hypothesized that numbers of Th17 cells and levels of IL-17A are associated with risk for nosocomial pneumonia in humans. Methods We collected bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from mechanically ventilated (n = 25) patients undergoing ...

The advantage of being slow: The quasi-neutral contact process

According to the competitive exclusion principle, in a finite ecosystem, extinction occurs naturally when two or more species compete for the same resources. An important question that arises is: when coexistence is not possible, which mechanisms confer an advantage to a given species against the other(s)? In general, it is expected that the species with the higher ...

A graph exploration method for identifying influential spreaders in complex networks

The problem of identifying the influential spreaders - the important nodes - in a real world network is of high importance due to its theoretical interest as well as its practical applications, such as the acceleration of information diffusion, the control of the spread of a disease and the improvement of the resilience of networks to external attacks. In this paper, we propose a ...

Longitudinal strain assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance correlates to hemodynamic findings in patients with severe aortic stenosis and predicts positive remodeling after transcatheter aortic valve replacement

Aims To assess left-ventricular strain parameters before and after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) by feature tracking cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (FT CMR) and to correlate the findings to hemodynamic state and left-ventricular remodeling. Methods and results Patients with symptomatic AS underwent FT CMR before and after TAVR. Patients were carefully evaluated ...

Water properties in pâtés enriched with potato juice

Freshly squeezed potato juice was used in the traditional European folk medicine. Potato juice can be introduced into food products both in its fresh as well as in thermally preserved form as a component of functional food. An attempt was made to analyse the impact of potato juice supplementation on qualitative and quantitative parameters characterising water bonds in poultry meat ...

Molecular characterization and multi-locus genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi from captive red kangaroos (Macropus Rfus) in Jiangsu province, China

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most common pathogen of microsporidian species infecting humans worldwide. Although E. bieneusi has been found in a variety of animal hosts, information on the presence of E. bieneusi in captive kangaroos in China is limited. The present study was aimed at determining the occurrence and genetic diversity of E. bieneusi in captive kangaroos. A total of ...

The use of 18F-Fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) as a non-invasive pharmacodynamic biomarker to determine the minimally pharmacologically active dose of AZD8835, a novel PI3Kα inhibitor

Background The phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase (PI3K), AKT and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signal transduction pathway is frequently de-regulated and activated in human cancer and is an important therapeutic target. AZD8835 is a PI3K inhibitor, with selectivity against PI3K α and δ isoforms, which is currently in Phase 1 clinical trials. 18F-Fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron ...

Justification of a certain algorithm for shape optimization in 3D elasticity

The trabecular bone adapts its form to mechanical loads and is able to form structures that are both lightweight but very stiff. In this sense, it is a problem (for the Nature or living entities) similar to the structural optimization, especially the topology optimization. The structural optimization system developed by the authors previously was based directly on the ...

Antagonism of proteasome inhibitor-induced heme oxygenase-1 expression by PINK1 mutation

PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) is an integral protein in the mitochondrial membrane and maintains mitochondrial fidelity. Pathogenic mutations in PINK1 have been identified as a cause of early-onset autosomal recessive familial Parkinson’s disease (PD). The ubiquitin proteasome pathway is associated with neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we investigated whether ...

Stability of a Fermionic N + 1 Particle System with Point Interactions

We prove that a system of N fermions interacting with an additional particle via point interactions is stable if the ratio of the mass of the additional particle to the one of the fermions is larger than some critical m*. The value of m* is independent of N and turns out to be less than 1. This fact has important implications for the stability of the unitary Fermi gas. We also ...