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Accuracy of WHO immunological criteria in identifying virological failure among HIV-infected adults on First line antiretroviral therapy in Mwanza, North-western Tanzania

Background Optimal HIV treatment monitoring remains a big challenge in resource limited settings. Guidelines recommend the use of clinical and immunological criteria in resource limited settings due to unavailability of viral load monitoring; however their utility is questionable. This study aimed at assessing the accuracy of immunological criteria in detecting treatment failure ...

Hypoxia-Induced Fibroblast Growth Factor 11 Stimulates Osteoclast-Mediated Resorption of Bone

Over-activation of osteoclasts is directly responsible for pathological bone loss in conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and cancer metastasis to bone. Hypoxia is a common feature of these conditions, associated with poor prognosis, which also stimulates osteoclast-mediated bone resorption via induction of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor HIF-1α. Here, we investigate ...

Set Theory and its Place in the Foundations of Mathematics: A New Look at an Old Question

This paper reviews the claims of several main-stream candidates to be the foundations of mathematics, including set theory. The review concludes that at this level of mathematical knowledge it would be very unreasonable to settle with any one of these foundations and that the only reasonable choice is a pluralist one.

Oral Vancomycin Followed by Fecal Transplantation Versus Tapering Oral Vancomycin Treatment for Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection: An Open-Label, Randomized Controlled Trial

Background. Fecal transplantation (FT) is a promising treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), but its true effectiveness remains unknown. We compared 14 days of oral vancomycin followed by a single FT by enema with oral vancomycin taper (standard of care) in adult patients experiencing acute recurrence of CDI.

SPH propagation back-analysis of Baishuihe landslide in south-western China

Background Landslides and landslide dams are a major natural hazard causing high socioeconomic risk in inhabited mountainous areas. This is also true for vast parts of south-western China, which are highly prone to slope failures due to several factors, such as a humid climate with high precipitation in the summer months, geological predisposing factors with highly weathered ...

Destabilization and off-flavors generated by Pseudomonas proteases during or after UHT-processing of milk

Background Pseudomonads play a major role in the spoilage of UHT processed dairy products, due to their growth-related protease production in raw milk. Results To assess the off-flavor generating capacity of these AprX proteases in milk after UHT-processing, six major milk spoiling Pseudomonas groups were investigated. Sensory evaluation of the different processed milk samples ...

Key factors and challenges of research-informed policy making in ECEC: examples from longitudinal studies

In this commentary, we draw on examples from the thematic issue ‘Longitudinal studies in ECEC—challenges of translating research results into policy actions’ to discuss how research from longitudinal studies in ECEC can potentially inform policy making. Thereby, we point out the challenges in the relationship between research and policy and suggest three key factors that can ...

Natural History of Cryptosporidiosis in a Birth Cohort in Southern India

Background. Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of moderate to severe childhood diarrhea in resource-poor settings. Understanding the natural history of cryptosporidiosis and the correlates of protection are essential to develop effective and sustainable approaches to disease control and prevention.

Stable Control of Firing Rate Mean and Variance by Dual Homeostatic Mechanisms

Homeostatic processes that provide negative feedback to regulate neuronal firing rates are essential for normal brain function. Indeed, multiple parameters of individual neurons, including the scale of afferent synapse strengths and the densities of specific ion channels, have been observed to change on homeostatic time scales to oppose the effects of chronic changes in synaptic ...

Diagnostic impact of [18F]flutemetamol PET in early-onset dementia

Background Early-onset dementia patients often present with atypical clinical symptoms, hampering an accurate clinical diagnosis. The purpose of the present study was to assess the diagnostic impact of the amyloid-positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agent [18F]flutemetamol in early-onset dementia patients, in terms of change in (confidence in) diagnosis and patient ...

Distinct neural bases of disruptive behavior and autism symptom severity in boys with autism spectrum disorder

Background Disruptive behavior in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an important clinical problem, but its neural basis remains poorly understood. The current research aims to better understand the neural underpinnings of disruptive behavior in ASD, while addressing whether the neural basis is shared with or separable from that of core ASD symptoms. Methods Participants consisted ...

Eslicarbazepine acetate: its effectiveness as adjunctive therapy in clinical trials and open studies

Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is a once-daily antiepileptic drug that is approved as adjunctive therapy in adults with focal-onset seizures. Following oral administration, ESL is rapidly metabolized to its active metabolite, eslicarbazepine, which acts primarily by enhancing slow inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels. The efficacy and safety/tolerability of ESL in the ...

Understanding diversity: a Dutch case study on teachers’ attitudes towards their diverse student population

Background In the Netherlands, there has been a strong increase in diversity among students in recent decades. Even though access for previously underrepresented groups based on economic status, ethnicity or culture has been realised to a certain extent, differences in student performance between groups persist. Research shows that teacher performance influences student achievement ...

Habitat suitability analysis for hippopotamus (H. amphibious) using GIS and remote sensing in Lake Tana and its environs, Ethiopia

This research was carried out from October 2013 to May 2014. Hippopotamus amphibious is a mammalian species distributed in different lakes and rivers where ecological requirements are fulfilled for its survival. Lake Tana and its environs are home to Hippopotamus amphibious. The species is identified as vulnerable worldwide due to habitat loss and poaching. However, despite its ...

High-quality draft genome sequence of Rhizobium mesoamericanum strain STM6155, a Mimosa pudica microsymbiont from New Caledonia

Rhizobium mesoamericanum STM6155 (INSCD = ATYY01000000) is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as an effective nitrogen fixing microsymbiont of the legume Mimosa pudica L.. STM6155 was isolated in 2009 from a nodule of the trap host M. pudica grown in nickel-rich soil collected near Mont Dore, New Caledonia. R. ...

Quantitative assessment of angiogenesis and pericyte coverage in human cell-derived vascular sprouts

Background Pericytes, surrounding the endothelium, fulfill diverse functions that are crucial for vascular homeostasis. The loss of pericytes is associated with pathologies, such as diabetic retinopathy and Alzheimer’s disease. Thus, there exists a need for an experimental system that combines pharmacologic manipulation and quantification of pericyte coverage during sprouting ...

Importance of Radioactive Labelling to Elucidate Inositol Polyphosphate Signalling

Inositol polyphosphates, in their water-soluble or lipid-bound forms, represent a large and multifaceted family of signalling molecules. Some inositol polyphosphates are well recognised as defining important signal transduction pathways, as in the case of the calcium release factor Ins(1,4,5)P3, generated by receptor activation-induced hydrolysis of the lipid PtdIns(4,5)P2 by ...