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Barriers and enablers for the development and implementation of allied health clinical practice guidelines in South African primary healthcare settings: a qualitative study

The South African allied health (AH) primary healthcare (PHC) workforce is challenged with the complex rehabilitation needs of escalating patient numbers. The application of evidence-based care using clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) is one way to make efficient and effective use of resources. Although CPGs are common for AH in high-income countries, there is limited ...

Diet has independent effects on the pace and shape of aging in Drosophila melanogaster

Studies examining how diet affects mortality risk over age typically characterise mortality using parameters such as aging rates, which condense how much and how quickly the risk of dying changes over time into a single measure. Demographers have suggested that decoupling the tempo and the magnitude of changing mortality risk may facilitate comparative analyses of mortality ...

EEG power at 3 months in infants at high familial risk for autism

Background Alterations in brain development during infancy may precede the behavioral manifestation of developmental disorders. Infants at increased risk for autism are also at increased risk for other developmental disorders, including, quite commonly, language disorders. Here we assess the extent to which electroencephalographic (EEG) differences in infants at high versus low ...

Utilization of a Novel Chitosan/Clay/Biochar Nanobiocomposite for Immobilization of Heavy Metals in Acid Soil Environment

An organic–inorganic composite of chitosan, nanoclay, and biochar (named as MTCB) was chosen to develop a bionanocomposite to simultaneously immobilize Cu, Pb, and Zn metal ions within the contaminated soil and water environments. The composite material was structurally and chemically characterized with the XRD, TEM, SEM, BET, and FT-IR techniques. XRD and TEM results revealed that ...

Designing an implementation intervention with the Behaviour Change Wheel for health provider smoking cessation care for Australian Indigenous pregnant women

Indigenous smoking rates are up to 80% among pregnant women: prevalence among pregnant Australian Indigenous women was 45% in 2014, contributing significantly to the health gap for Indigenous Australians. We aimed to develop an implementation intervention to improve smoking cessation care (SCC) for pregnant Indigenous smokers, an outcome to be achieved by training health providers ...

Using democracy to award research funding: an observational study

Background Winning funding for health and medical research usually involves a lengthy application process. With success rates under 20%, much of the time spent by 80% of applicants could have been better used on actual research. An alternative funding system that could save time is using democracy to award the most deserving researchers based on votes from the research community. ...

Attribution of global foodborne disease to specific foods: Findings from a World Health Organization structured expert elicitation

Background Recently the World Health Organization, Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG) estimated that 31 foodborne diseases (FBDs) resulted in over 600 million illnesses and 420,000 deaths worldwide in 2010. Knowing the relative role importance of different foods as exposure routes for key hazards is critical to preventing illness. This study reports the ...

Baseline survey of the fish fauna of a highly eutrophic estuary and evidence for its colonisation by Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

This study represents the first quantitative survey of the fish fauna of the highly eutrophic Vasse and Wonnerup estuaries, part of the Ramsar-listed Vasse-Wonnerup Wetland System in south-western Australia. Sampling at five sites in each of these estuaries occurred in January 2012 (austral summer) to provide a species inventory and determine whether the number of species, total ...

Loci on chromosomes 1A and 2A affect resistance to tan (yellow) spot in wheat populations not segregating for tsn1

Key message QTL for tan spot resistance were mapped on wheat chromosomes 1A and 2A. Lines were developed with resistance alleles at these loci and at the tsn1 locus on chromosome 5B. These lines expressed significantly higher resistance than the parent with tsn1 only. Abstract Tan spot (syn. yellow spot and yellow leaf spot) caused by Pyrenophora tritici-repentis is an important ...

The evolution of Lachancea thermotolerans is driven by geographical determination, anthropisation and flux between different ecosystems

The yeast Lachancea thermotolerans (formerly Kluyveromyces thermotolerans) is a species with remarkable, yet underexplored, biotechnological potential. This ubiquist occupies a range of natural and anthropic habitats covering a wide geographic span. To gain an insight into L. thermotolerans population diversity and structure, 172 isolates sourced from diverse habitats worldwide ...

Systematic review and meta-analysis of school-based obesity interventions in mainland China

Background Numerous school-based interventions for childhood obesity have been emerging in mainland China in recent decades, but little is known about the effectiveness of such interventions. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of school-based interventions for childhood obesity conducted in mainland China. Methods A systematic search was undertaken in eight databases to ...