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Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy: Connecting Mechanisms to Diagnosis and Treatment

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that has been linked to the incidence of repetitive mild traumatic brain injuries. As chronic traumatic encephalopathy has no formal diagnosis or treatment, current research is striving to better understand its neuropathology in order to develop effective diagnostic and treatment strategies. This review ...

Application of Neuroscience Principles for Evidence-based Design in Architectural Education

We spend approximately 90% of our time within a built environment, whether it is in our homes, offices, schools, city parks, or public spaces. This bears significance, as we are equally shaped by both our genetic makeup as well as our environment, which brings into question of how we experience space, and in turn how these experiences impact our behaviour. To gain a greater ...

An imputation/copula-based stochastic individual tree growth model for mixed species Acadian forests: a case study using the Nova Scotia permanent sample plot network

Background A novel approach to modelling individual tree growth dynamics is proposed. The approach combines multiple imputation and copula sampling to produce a stochastic individual tree growth and yield projection system. Methods The Nova Scotia, Canada permanent sample plot network is used as a case study to develop and test the modelling approach. Predictions from this model ...

A New Perspective on Parkinson’s Disease: Pathology Begins in the Gastrointestinal Tract

Gastrointestinal dysfunction has a high prevalence in the preclinical phase of Parkinson’s Disease. This review analyzes recent reports that show abnormalities in the gastrointestinal tract of Parkinson’s patients compared to controls, suggesting that the disease originates in the gut. The enteric nervous system, which is composed of myenteric and submucosal plexuses, is ...

Day-to-day fasting glycaemic variability in DEVOTE: associations with severe hypoglycaemia and cardiovascular outcomes (DEVOTE 2)

Aims/hypothesis The Trial Comparing Cardiovascular Safety of Insulin Degludec vs Insulin Glargine in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes at High Risk of Cardiovascular Events (DEVOTE) was a double-blind, randomised, event-driven, treat-to-target prospective trial comparing the cardiovascular safety of insulin degludec with that of insulin glargine U100 (100 units/ml) in patients with ...

DEVOTE 3: temporal relationships between severe hypoglycaemia, cardiovascular outcomes and mortality

Aims/hypothesis The double-blind Trial Comparing Cardiovascular Safety of Insulin Degludec vs Insulin Glargine in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes at High Risk of Cardiovascular Events (DEVOTE) assessed the cardiovascular safety of insulin degludec. The incidence and rates of adjudicated severe hypoglycaemia, and all-cause mortality were also determined. This paper reports a secondary ...

Utilization of a Novel Chitosan/Clay/Biochar Nanobiocomposite for Immobilization of Heavy Metals in Acid Soil Environment

An organic–inorganic composite of chitosan, nanoclay, and biochar (named as MTCB) was chosen to develop a bionanocomposite to simultaneously immobilize Cu, Pb, and Zn metal ions within the contaminated soil and water environments. The composite material was structurally and chemically characterized with the XRD, TEM, SEM, BET, and FT-IR techniques. XRD and TEM results revealed that ...

Measurement of cortisol in saliva: a comparison of measurement error within and between international academic-research laboratories

Objective Hundreds of scientific publications are produced annually that involve the measurement of cortisol in saliva. Intra- and inter-laboratory variation in salivary cortisol results has the potential to contribute to cross-study inconsistencies in findings, and the perception that salivary cortisol results are unreliable. This study rigorously estimates sources of measurement ...

Criminal Prohibition of Wrongful Re‑identification: Legal Solution or Minefield for Big Data?

The collapse of confidence in anonymization (sometimes also known as de-identification) as a robust approach for preserving the privacy of personal data has incited an outpouring of new approaches that aim to fill the resulting trifecta of technical, organizational, and regulatory privacy gaps left in its wake. In the latter category, and in large part due to the growth of Big ...

Goal-oriented requirements engineering: an extended systematic mapping study

Over the last two decades, much attention has been paid to the area of goal-oriented requirements engineering (GORE), where goals are used as a useful conceptualization to elicit, model, and analyze requirements, capturing alternatives and conflicts. Goal modeling has been adapted and applied to many sub-topics within requirements engineering (RE) and beyond, such as agent ...

Glyphosate (Ab)sorption by Shoots and Rhizomes of Native versus Hybrid Cattail (Typha)

Wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America are integrated with farmland and contain mixtures of herbicide contaminants. Passive nonfacilitated diffusion is how most herbicides can move across plant membranes, making this perhaps an important process by which herbicide contaminants are absorbed by wetland vegetation. Prairie wetlands are dominated by native cattail ...

The influence of threatening visual warnings on tobacco packaging: Measuring the impact of threat level, image size, and type of pack through psychophysiological and self-report methods

The first aim of this research was to assess the effectiveness, in terms of emotional and behavioral reactions, of moderately vs. highly TVWs (Threatening Visual Warnings) displayed on tobacco packs. Given the key role that emotional reactions play in explaining the effect of TVWs on behaviors, psychophysiological and self-report methods were used–for the first time in this ...

Cholesterol added prior to vitrification on the cryotolerance of immature and in vitro matured bovine oocytes

This study examines whether incorporating cholesterol-loaded methyl-β-cyclodextrin (CLC) in the bovine oocyte plasma membrane improves oocyte tolerance to vitrification. In vitro matured oocytes were incubated with 2 mg/ml BODIPY-labeled CLC for different time intervals in FCS or PVA supplemented medium or exposed to different CLC concentrations to examine the subcellular ...

The rise of the middle author: Investigating collaboration and division of labor in biomedical research using partial alphabetical authorship

Contemporary biomedical research is performed by increasingly large teams. Consequently, an increasingly large number of individuals are being listed as authors in the bylines, which complicates the proper attribution of credit and responsibility to individual authors. Typically, more importance is given to the first and last authors, while it is assumed that the others (the middle ...

Readiness for climate change adaptation in the Arctic: a case study from Nunavut, Canada

There is limited knowledge on institutional factors constraining and enabling climate change adaptation in Arctic regions, or the overall readiness of governing bodies and communities to develop, implement, and promote adaptation. This paper examines the preparedness of different levels of government to adapt in the Canadian Arctic territory of Nunavut, drawing upon semi-structured ...

Between-breed variations in resistance/resilience to gastrointestinal nematodes among indigenous goat breeds in Uganda

Gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs), Haemonchus contortus, are a major health problem in goat production. Resistance to H. contortus, the most prevalent GIN in Uganda, was studied among three indigenous goat breeds to assess their differences. Twelve male goats of each breed approximately 7 months old of small East African (SEA), Mubende, and Kigezi goats from smallholder farmers in ...

Economy-wide impact of TPP: new challenges to China

The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) agreement as originally announced in October 2015 was undoubtedly the largest regional trade accord in history and, if approved, could have set new terms for the nearly US $28 trillion in trade and business investment between the parties to the deal. But the deal hit a roadblock when the USA decided to withdraw from the agreement in January 2017. ...