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Tissue is the issue and tissue competition. Re-biopsy for mutation T790: where and why?

Lung cancer is still the leading cause of death among all cancers. During the last 15 years, pharmacogenomics of lung cancer have established targeted therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) positive patients in adenocarcinoma or mixed adenosquamus lung cancer patients. However; while novel drugs are released in the market, at the ...

A cognitive electrophysiological signature differentiates amnestic mild cognitive impairment from normal aging

Background Noninvasive and effective biomarkers for early detection of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) before measurable changes in behavioral performance remain scarce. Cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs) measure synchronized synaptic neural activity associated with a cognitive event. Loss of synapses is a hallmark of the neuropathology of early Alzheimer’s disease ...

SPH propagation back-analysis of Baishuihe landslide in south-western China

Background Landslides and landslide dams are a major natural hazard causing high socioeconomic risk in inhabited mountainous areas. This is also true for vast parts of south-western China, which are highly prone to slope failures due to several factors, such as a humid climate with high precipitation in the summer months, geological predisposing factors with highly weathered ...

Characterization of LhSorP5CS, a gene catalyzing proline synthesis in Oriental hybrid lily Sorbonne: molecular modelling and expression analysis

Background Abiotic stresses negatively affect plant growth and flower production. In plants, P5CS proteins are key enzymes that catalyzed the rate-limiting steps of proline synthesis, and proline is a well-known osmoprotectant that is closely related to abiotic stress tolerance. However, information about the P5CS genes, their effects on proline accumulation, and their role in ...

Long noncoding RNA Braveheart promotes cardiogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro

Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have limited potential of cardiogenic differentiation. In this study, we investigated the influence of long noncoding RNA Braveheart (lncRNA-Bvht) on cardiogenic differentiation of MSCs in vitro. Methods MSCs were obtained from C57BL/6 mice and cultured in vitro. Cells were divided into three groups: blank control, null vector control, and ...

Transcriptomic response of wolf spider, Pardosa pseudoannulata, to transgenic rice expressing Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protein

Background Bacillum thuringiensis (Bt) toxin produced in Cry1-expressing genetically modified rice (Bt rice) is highly effective to control lepidopteran pests, which reduces the needs for synthetic insecticides. Non-target organisms can be exposed to Bt toxins through direct feeding or trophic interactions in the field. The wolf spider Pardosa pseudoannulata, one of the dominant ...

Functional responses can unify invasion ecology

We contend that invasion ecology requires a universal, measurable trait of species and their interactions with resources that predicts key elements of invasibility and ecological impact; here, we advocate that functional responses can help achieve this across taxonomic and trophic groups, among habitats and contexts, and can hence help unify disparate research interests in invasion ...

World Governance and Leadership Designs for the Future

An expanding globalization causes global failures, similar to economy failures encountered in the national economic system. Global failures take other forms and are likely to be more severe in the future because of the entry in the world scene of leading countries that have distinctly different economic systems (for instance, China, India) from leading incumbents (US, EU), and ...

Natural Products Diversity of Marine Ascidians (Tunicates; Ascidiacea) and Successful Drugs in Clinical Development

This present study reviewed the chemical diversity of marine ascidians and their pharmacological applications, challenges and recent developments in marine drug discovery reported during 1994–2014, highlighting the structural activity of compounds produced by these specimens. Till date only 5% of living ascidian species were studied from <3000 species, this study represented from ...

Contrast in Terahertz Images of Archival Documents—Part I: Influence of the Optical Parameters from the Ink and Support

This study aims to objectively inform curators when terahertz time-domain (TD) imaging set in reflection mode is likely to give well-contrasted images of inscriptions in a complex archival document and is a useful non-invasive alternative to current digitisation processes. To this end, the dispersive refractive indices and absorption coefficients from various archival materials are ...

Approximation of the 2D incompressible electrohydrodynamics system by the artificial compressibility method

This paper is devoted to the investigation of the 2D incompressible electrohydrodynamics system by the artificial compressibility method. We first introduce a family of perturbed compressible electrohydrodynamics, which approximate the incompressible electrohydrodynamics as the compressibility parameter is sent to zero. Then we prove the unique existence and convergence of ...

Intrathecal magnesium sulfate does not reduce the ED 50 of intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine for cesarean delivery in healthy parturients: a prospective, double blinded, randomized dose-response trial using the sequential allocation method

Background Addition of intrathecal magnesium sulfate to local anesthetics has been reported to potentiate spinal anesthesia and prolong analgesia in parturients. The current study was to determine whether intrathecal magnesium sulfate would reduce the dose of hyperbaric bupivacaine in spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine and sufentanil for cesarean delivery. Methods Sixty healthy ...

Effects of ablation depth and repair time on the corneal elastic modulus after laser in situ keratomileusis

Background The biomechanical properties of the cornea should be taken into account in the refractive procedure in order to perform refractive surgery more accurately. The effects of the ablation depth and repair time on the elastic modulus of the rabbit cornea after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) are still unclear. Methods In this study, LASIK was performed on New Zealand ...

MITF and PU.1 inhibit adipogenesis of ovine primary preadipocytes by restraining C/EBPβ

Background PU box-binding protein (PU.1) is a master gene of hematopoietic lineage and an important specific transcription factor in osteoclast lineage. There is proof of its expression in adipose tissue, and it is known to significantly and negatively affect adipogenesis. However, it is unclear whether there are any other molecules involved in this process. Methods We wished to ...

Enhancement of Perovskite Solar Cells Efficiency using N-Doped TiO2 Nanorod Arrays as Electron Transfer Layer

In this paper, N-doped TiO2 (N-TiO2) nanorod arrays were synthesized with hydrothermal method, and perovskite solar cells were fabricated using them as electron transfer layer. The solar cell performance was optimized by changing the N doping contents. The power conversion efficiency of solar cells based on N-TiO2 with the N doping content of 1% (N/Ti, atomic ratio) has been ...

Prevalence and genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium species and Giardia duodenalis in lambs in Oromia Special Zone, Central Ethiopia

Background Cryptosporidium and Giardia duodenalis are gastro-intestinal parasites that infect human and animals worldwide. Both parasites share a broad host range and are believed to be zoonosis. The aim of this study was to identify the species of Cryptosporidium and assemblages of G. duodenalis in lambs and to elucidate their role in zoonotic transmission. Results A total of 389 ...

Laparoscopic versus open nephroureterectomy to treat localized and/or locally advanced upper tract urothelial carcinoma: oncological outcomes from a multicenter study

Background Many studies have reported the oncological outcomes between open radical nephroureterectomy (ONU) and laparoscopic radical nephroureterectomy (LNU) of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). However, few data have focused on the oncological outcomes of LNU in the subgroup of localized and/or locally advanced UTUC (T 1–4 /N 0-X ). The purpose of this study was to compare ...

Random X-chromosome inactivation dynamics in vivo by single-cell RNA sequencing

Background Random X-chromosome inactivation (rXCI) is important for the maintenance of normal somatic cell functions in female eutherian mammals. The dynamics of X-chromosome inactivation initiation has been widely studied by assessing embryonic stem cell differentiation in vitro. To investigate the phenomenon in vivo, we applied RNA sequencing to single cells from female embryos ...