Advanced search    

Search: *

109,185 papers found. Showing first 1,000 results.
Use AND, OR, NOT, +word, -word, "long phrase", (parentheses) to fine-tune your search.

Big Systems Versus Stocky Tangles: It Can Matter to the Details

Wolfgang Spohn’s Frege prize lecture, like the work on which it is based, is a tour de force of rich, elegant, coherent argument about how the projected world that we experience is constructed. But we do not live in this projected world nor reason about it. The things Spohn constructs are there from the start—or so my Stanford School pragmatism teaches. This paper explores a deep ...

Analysing a mechanism of failure in retrieved magnetically controlled spinal rods

Purpose We aim to describe a mechanism of failure in magnetically controlled growth rods which are used for the correction of the early onset scoliosis. Methods This retrieval study involved nine magnetically controlled growth rods, of a single design, revised from five patients for metal staining, progression of scoliosis, swelling, fractured actuator pin, and final fusion. All ...

Complex regional pain syndrome: a recent update

Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a debilitating condition affecting the limbs that can be induced by surgery or trauma. This condition can complicate recovery and impair one’s functional and psychological well-being. The wide variety of terminology loosely used to describe CRPS in the past has led to misdiagnosis of this condition, resulting in poor evidence-base regarding ...

Cognitive Enhancement of Numerical and Arithmetic Capabilities: a Mini-Review of Available Transcranial Electric Stimulation Studies

Arithmetic capabilities are complex cognitive skills essential for handling requirements of the modern world. At the same time, educational institutions are challenged with math-related problems, e.g., developmental dyscalculia and math anxiety, and also with less severe difficulties of arithmetic understanding. Thus, non-invasive techniques for cognitive enhancement have attracted ...

Evaluation of three sample preparation methods for the direct identification of bacteria in positive blood cultures by MALDI-TOF

Background Patient mortality is significantly reduced by rapid identification of bacteria from sterile sites. MALDI-TOF can identify bacteria directly from positive blood cultures and multiple sample preparation methods are available. We evaluated three sample preparation methods and two MALDI-TOF score cut-off values. Positive blood culture bottles with organisms present in Gram ...

Hypoxia-Induced Fibroblast Growth Factor 11 Stimulates Osteoclast-Mediated Resorption of Bone

Over-activation of osteoclasts is directly responsible for pathological bone loss in conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and cancer metastasis to bone. Hypoxia is a common feature of these conditions, associated with poor prognosis, which also stimulates osteoclast-mediated bone resorption via induction of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor HIF-1α. Here, we investigate ...

Set Theory and its Place in the Foundations of Mathematics: A New Look at an Old Question

This paper reviews the claims of several main-stream candidates to be the foundations of mathematics, including set theory. The review concludes that at this level of mathematical knowledge it would be very unreasonable to settle with any one of these foundations and that the only reasonable choice is a pluralist one.

Key factors and challenges of research-informed policy making in ECEC: examples from longitudinal studies

In this commentary, we draw on examples from the thematic issue ‘Longitudinal studies in ECEC—challenges of translating research results into policy actions’ to discuss how research from longitudinal studies in ECEC can potentially inform policy making. Thereby, we point out the challenges in the relationship between research and policy and suggest three key factors that can ...

Importance of Radioactive Labelling to Elucidate Inositol Polyphosphate Signalling

Inositol polyphosphates, in their water-soluble or lipid-bound forms, represent a large and multifaceted family of signalling molecules. Some inositol polyphosphates are well recognised as defining important signal transduction pathways, as in the case of the calcium release factor Ins(1,4,5)P3, generated by receptor activation-induced hydrolysis of the lipid PtdIns(4,5)P2 by ...

Improving uncertainty analysis of embodied energy and embodied carbon in wind turbine design

In this paper, a method for improving uncertainty estimates of embodied carbon and embodied energy is presented and discussed. Embodied energy and embodied carbon results are the focus of this analysis due to the fact that, at the conceptual design stage, these two are the most important quantities for decision making in life cycle assessment (LCA) studies. The use of renewable and ...

Distinct neural bases of disruptive behavior and autism symptom severity in boys with autism spectrum disorder

Background Disruptive behavior in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an important clinical problem, but its neural basis remains poorly understood. The current research aims to better understand the neural underpinnings of disruptive behavior in ASD, while addressing whether the neural basis is shared with or separable from that of core ASD symptoms. Methods Participants consisted ...

Eslicarbazepine acetate: its effectiveness as adjunctive therapy in clinical trials and open studies

Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is a once-daily antiepileptic drug that is approved as adjunctive therapy in adults with focal-onset seizures. Following oral administration, ESL is rapidly metabolized to its active metabolite, eslicarbazepine, which acts primarily by enhancing slow inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels. The efficacy and safety/tolerability of ESL in the ...

Guidance control and the anti-akrasia chip

According to Fischer and Ravizza, an agent has guidance control over some action A, whenever A is issued from one of their own moderately reasons-responsive mechanisms. This involves two elements: (i) the process P leading to their action being suitably responsive to reasons-(moderately reasons-responsive); and (ii) their taking an attitude towards processes of kind P such that ...

Reducing the pressure drag of a D-shaped bluff body using linear feedback control

The pressure drag of blunt bluff bodies is highly relevant in many practical applications, including to the aerodynamic drag of road vehicles. This paper presents theory revealing that a mean drag reduction can be achieved by manipulating wake flow fluctuations. A linear feedback control strategy then exploits this idea, targeting attenuation of the spatially integrated base (back ...

Chondroitin sulfates and their binding molecules in the central nervous system

Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is the most abundant glycosaminoglycan (GAG) in the central nervous system (CNS) matrix. Its sulfation and epimerization patterns give rise to different forms of CS, which enables it to interact specifically and with a significant affinity with various signalling molecules in the matrix including growth factors, receptors and guidance molecules. These ...

Solving the clinker dilemma with hybrid output-based allocation

Output-based allocation (OBA) is one of the main options discussed for addressing carbon leakage in emissions trading systems. This paper studies how different OBA designs affect incentives on mitigation and trade in the cement sector. To do so, we develop an analytical model of sector emissions as a function of technical parameters representing abatement levers. We propose a ...

Functional responses can unify invasion ecology

We contend that invasion ecology requires a universal, measurable trait of species and their interactions with resources that predicts key elements of invasibility and ecological impact; here, we advocate that functional responses can help achieve this across taxonomic and trophic groups, among habitats and contexts, and can hence help unify disparate research interests in invasion ...

Post-stroke dementia – a comprehensive review

Post-stroke dementia (PSD) or post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) may affect up to one third of stroke survivors. Various definitions of PSCI and PSD have been described. We propose PSD as a label for any dementia following stroke in temporal relation. Various tools are available to screen and assess cognition, with few PSD-specific instruments. Choice will depend on purpose of ...