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Formation of amides: one-pot condensation of carboxylic acids and amines mediated by TiCl4

A general procedure for the synthesis of amides via the direct condensation of carboxylic acids and amines in the presence of TiCl4 is reported. The amidation reaction was performed in pyridine at 85 °C with a wide range of substrates providing the corresponding amide products in moderate to excellent yields and high purity. The reaction proceeds with low yields when both the ...

Assessment of glucose regulation in pregnancy after gastric bypass surgery

Aims/hypothesis Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is characterised by glycaemic variability. Prospective studies of glucose metabolism in pregnancy after RYGB are not available, therefore this study aimed to evaluate physiological alterations in glucose metabolism in pregnancy following RYGB. Methods Sixty-three pregnant women (25 who underwent RYGB, 19 non-operated obese ...

Biological effects of combined resveratrol and vitamin D3 on ovarian tissue

Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a natural antioxidant polyphenol able to exert a wide range of biological effect on several tissues. Despite its important beneficial properties, it has a low water solubility, which limits its therapeutic applications in humans. Resveratrol also acts as a phytoestrogen that modulates estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated transcription. ...

New Insights on Mt. Etna’s Crust and Relationship with the Regional Tectonic Framework from Joint Active and Passive P-Wave Seismic Tomography

In the Central Mediterranean region, the production of chemically diverse volcanic products (e.g., those from Mt. Etna and the Aeolian Islands archipelago) testifies to the complexity of the tectonic and geodynamic setting. Despite the large number of studies that have focused on this area, the relationships among volcanism, tectonics, magma ascent, and geodynamic processes remain ...

European Atlas of the Seas: “a picture is worth a thousand words”

The European Atlas of the Seas offers a snapshot of environmental and socio-economic features that characterize the coastal and marine environment. The latest release (Version 4) addresses the public in general, but also non-specialist experts involved with environmental issues, human activities or policies related to Europe’s coasts and seas. The information content of the Atlas ...

Land Use Alters the Drought Responses of Productivity and CO2 Fluxes in Mountain Grassland

Climate extremes and land-use changes can have major impacts on the carbon cycle of ecosystems. Their combined effects have rarely been tested. We studied whether and how the abandonment of traditionally managed mountain grassland changes the resilience of carbon dynamics to drought. In an in situ common garden experiment located in a subalpine meadow in the Austrian Central Alps, ...

Do we need randomized clinical trials in extracorporeal respiratory support? Yes

Extracorporeal respiratory support, also known as extracorporeal gas exchange, may be used to rescue the most severe forms of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure with high blood flow venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Alternatively, lower flow extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal might be applied to reduce the intensity of mechanical ventilation in patients with less ...

Goal-oriented requirements engineering: an extended systematic mapping study

Over the last two decades, much attention has been paid to the area of goal-oriented requirements engineering (GORE), where goals are used as a useful conceptualization to elicit, model, and analyze requirements, capturing alternatives and conflicts. Goal modeling has been adapted and applied to many sub-topics within requirements engineering (RE) and beyond, such as agent ...

A multilayer biomaterial for osteochondral regeneration shows superiority vs microfractures for the treatment of osteochondral lesions in a multicentre randomized trial at 2 years

Purpose The increasing awareness on the role of subchondral bone in the etiopathology of articular surface lesions led to the development of osteochondral scaffolds. While safety and promising results have been suggested, there are no trials proving the real potential of the osteochondral regenerative approach. Aim was to assess the benefit provided by a nanostructured ...

Intra and inter-session reliability of rapid Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation stimulus-response curves of tibialis anterior muscle in healthy older adults

Objective The clinical use of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) as a technique to assess corticospinal excitability is limited by the time for data acquisition and the measurement variability. This study aimed at evaluating the reliability of Stimulus-Response (SR) curves acquired with a recently proposed rapid protocol on tibialis anterior muscle of healthy older adults. ...

The spectral features of EEG responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation of the primary motor cortex depend on the amplitude of the motor evoked potentials

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the primary motor cortex (M1) can excite both cortico-cortical and cortico-spinal axons resulting in TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs) and motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), respectively. Despite this remarkable difference with other cortical areas, the influence of motor output and its amplitude on TEPs is largely unknown. Here we studied TEPs ...

Prevalence and determinants of oral infection by Human Papillomavirus in HIV-infected and uninfected men who have sex with men

Background Oral Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is rare in the general population but common in high-risk individuals. Recent data indicate that oral HPV is associated with the development of head and neck carcinomas. HPV16 infection, in particular, increases the risk of oropharyngeal cancer. Methods We evaluated oral HPV prevalence and determinants of infection in cancer-free ...

Benefit–Risk Profile of Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptor Modulators in Relapsing and Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

Since the approval of fingolimod, several selective sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulators have entered clinical development for multiple sclerosis. However, side effects can occur with sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulators. By considering short-term data across the drug class and longer term fingolimod data, we aim to highlight the potential of sphingosine-1-phosphate ...

AMBER: Advanced Mother Board for Embedded systems pRototyping

The proliferation of low-cost embedded system platforms has allowed the creation of large communities of developers, as well as the development of new advanced applications. Even though some of these applications can be of industrial relevance, their immediate application to real products is not straightforward since most of them require a complete and expensive hardware redesign ...

Liquid dynamic medicine and N-of-1 clinical trials: a change of perspective in oncology research

The increasing use of genomics to define the pattern of actionable mutations and to test and validate new therapies for individual cancer patients, and the growing application of liquid biopsy to dynamically track tumor evolution and to adapt molecularly targeted therapy according to the emergence of tumor clonal variants is shaping modern medical oncology., In order to better ...

PreImplantation Factor in endometriosis: A potential role in inducing immune privilege for ectopic endometrium

Endometriosis is a chronic inflammatory condition characterised by the growth of endometrial epithelial and stromal cells outside the uterine cavity. In addition to Sampson’s theory of retrograde menstruation, endometriosis pathogenesis is facilitated by a privileged inflammatory microenvironment, with T regulatory FoxP3+ expressing T cells (Tregs) being a significant factor. ...