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Knowledge of pharmacy students about doping, and the need for doping education: a questionnaire survey

Background Anti-doping activities are carried out on a global scale. Based on these activities, the specialty of “sports pharmacist,” which entails a deeper comprehension of doping, use of supplements, and appropriate drug use for athletes, was established in 2009 in Japan. It is difficult to say whether the education on doping is adequate for pharmacy students who will be eligible ...

Is a high serum copper concentration a risk factor for implantation failure?

Background Copper-containing contraceptive devices may deposit copper ions in the endometrium, resulting in implantation failure. The deposition of copper ions in many organs has been reported in patients with untreated Wilson’s disease. Since these patients sometimes exhibit subfertility and/or early pregnancy loss, copper ions were also considered to accumulate in the uterine ...

The use of aortic balloon occlusion in traumatic shock: first report from the ABO trauma registry

Purpose Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is a technique for temporary stabilization of patients with non-compressible torso hemorrhage. This technique has been increasingly used worldwide during the past decade. Despite the good outcomes of translational studies, clinical studies are divided. The aim of this multicenter-international study was to ...

Phase 1 study of darolutamide (ODM-201): a new-generation androgen receptor antagonist, in Japanese patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer

Purpose This trial assessed the safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of darolutamide (ODM-201), a new-generation nonsteroidal androgen receptor antagonist, in Japanese patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Methods In this open-label, nonrandomized, two-cohort, dose-escalating phase 1 study, Japanese patients with mCRPC were enrolled after a ...

Relationship between Semenogelins bound to human sperm and other semen parameters and pregnancy outcomes

Background Semenogelins (SEMGs) are major components of human seminal vesicle secretions. Due to SEMG’s sperm-motility inhibitor, a significant negative correlation between sperm motility and the proportion of SEMG-bound spermatozoa (SEMG+) was found in asthenozoospermic patients. SEMGs also show intrinsic inhibitory capability for sperm capacitation; however, studies on actual ...

Chaotic itinerancy within the coupled dynamics between a physical body and neural oscillator networks

Chaotic itinerancy is a phenomenon in which the state of a nonlinear dynamical system spontaneously explores and attracts certain states in a state space. From this perspective, the diverse behavior of animals and its spontaneous transitions lead to a complex coupled dynamical system, including a physical body and a brain. Herein, a series of simulations using different types of ...

Potential distribution of pine wilt disease under future climate change scenarios

Pine wilt disease (PWD) constitutes a serious threat to pine forests. Since development depends on temperature and drought, there is a concern that future climate change could lead to the spread of PWD infections. We evaluated the risk of PWD in 21 susceptible Pinus species on a global scale. The MB index, which represents the sum of the difference between the mean monthly ...

Non-invasive volumetric analysis of asymptomatic hands using a 3-D scanner

Hand swelling is one of the symptoms often seen in practice, but none of the available morphometric methods can quickly and efficiently quantify hand volume in an objective manner, and the current gold-standard volume measurement requires immersion in water, which can be difficult to use. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the accuracy of using 3-dimensional (3-D) scanning to measure ...

Two populations of less-virulent Helicobacter pylori genotypes in Bangladesh

Bangladesh has a population with a low gastric cancer risk but high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Several studies have examined virulence genes in H. pylori from Bangladesh. We analyzed cagA and vacA subtypes and their association with severe histology phenotypes, and analyzed population types among Bangladeshi strains. We included patients who underwent endoscopy in ...

Stool consistency is significantly associated with pain perception

Background Commensal as well as pathogenic bacteria can influence a variety of gut functions, thereby leading to constipation and diarrhea in severe cases. In fact, several researchers have reported evidence supporting the association between stool consistency or constipation and the Gut microbiome (GM) composition and dysbiosis. GM influences the human health and disease via the ...

Objective assessment of leg edema using ultrasonography with a gel pad

Ultrasonography (US) is useful for visual detection of edematous tissues to assess subcutaneous echogenicity. However, visualization of subcutaneous echogenicity is interpreted differently among operators because the evaluation is subjective and individual operators have unique knowledge. This study objectively assessed leg edema using US with a gel pad including fat for ...

Cells Expressing Prominin-1 in Neonatal Murine Inferior Colliculus Differentiate into Neurons and Glia

Inferior colliculus (IC) is a major center for the integration and processing of acoustic information from ascending auditory pathways. Damage to the IC as well as normal aging can impair auditory function. Novel strategies such as stem cell (SC)-based regenerative therapy are required for functional recovery because mature neural cells have a minimal regenerative capacity after an ...

IPET study: an FLT-PET window study to assess the activity of the steroid sulfatase inhibitor irosustat in early breast cancer

Background Steroid sulfatase (STS) is involved in oestrogen biosynthesis and irosustat is a first generation, irreversible steroid sulfatase inhibitor. A pre-surgical window-of-opportunity study with irosustat was undertaken in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer to assess the effect of irosustat on tumour cell proliferation as measured by 3′-deoxy-3′-[18F] ...

Significance of new membrane formation in peritoneal biopsies of peritoneal dialysis patients: a case–control study

Background Newly formed membrane (NFM) on the peritoneal membrane proper is a unique pathological hallmark of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS), but its definition and diagnostic significance have not been well described. This study investigated the pathological features of NFM in EPS and prevalence of NFM in peritoneal biopsy at catheter removal. Methods This multicenter ...

Hepatocyte Transplantation: Cell Sheet Technology for Liver Cell Transplantation

Purpose of Review We will review the recent developments of cell sheet technology as a feasible tissue engineering approach. Specifically, we will focus on the technological advancement for engineering functional liver tissue using cell sheet technology, and the associated therapeutic effect of cell sheets for liver diseases, highlighting hemophilia. Recent Findings Cell-based ...

Characteristics of the Foot Static Alignment and the Plantar Pressure Associated with Fifth Metatarsal Stress Fracture History in Male Soccer Players: a Case-Control Study

Background There is a large amount of information regarding risk factors for fifth metatarsal stress fractures; however, there are few studies involving large numbers of subjects. This study aimed to compare the static foot alignment and distribution of foot pressure of athletes with and without a history of fifth metatarsal stress fractures. Methods The study participants ...

Resident fibroblasts in the kidney: a major driver of fibrosis and inflammation

Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a leading cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD) and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide, resulting in a growing social and economic burden. The prevalence and burden of CKD is anticipated to further increase over the next decades as a result of aging. Main body of abstract In the pathogenesis of CKD, irrespective of the ...

Standardization of health outcomes assessment for depression and anxiety: recommendations from the ICHOM Depression and Anxiety Working Group

Purpose National initiatives, such as the UK Improving Access to Psychological Therapies program (IAPT), demonstrate the feasibility of conducting empirical mental health assessments on a large scale, and similar initiatives exist in other countries. However, there is a lack of international consensus on which outcome domains are most salient to monitor treatment progress and how ...

Establishment of highly metastatic KRAS mutant lung cancer cell sublines in long-term three-dimensional low attachment cultures

Decreased cell-substratum adhesion is crucially involved in metastasis. Previous studies demonstrated that lung cancer with floating cell clusters in histology is more likely to develop metastasis. In the present study, we investigated whether cancer cells in long-term, three-dimensional low attachment cultures acquire high metastatic potential; these cells were then used to ...