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Decision time and confidence predict choosers' identification performance in photographic showups

In vast contrast to the multitude of lineup studies that report on the link between decision time, confidence, and identification accuracy, only a few studies looked at these associations for showups, with results varying widely across studies. We therefore set out to test the individual and combined value of decision time and post-decision confidence for diagnosing the accuracy of ...

Cognitive distortions and gambling near-misses in Internet Gaming Disorder: A preliminary study

Increased cognitive distortions (i.e. biased processing of chance, probability and skill) are a key psychopathological process in disordered gambling. The present study investigated state and trait aspects of cognitive distortions in 22 individuals with Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) and 22 healthy controls. Participants completed the Gambling Related Cognitions Scale as a trait ...

Prosocial consequences of third-party anger

Anger has traditionally been associated with aggression and antagonistic behavior. A series of studies revealed that experiences of third-party anger (anger experienced when observing that harm is done to someone) can also lead to prosocial behavior. More specifically, three studies, hypothetical scenarios as well as a behavioral study, revealed that third-party anger can promote ...

Increased colon cancer risk after severe Salmonella infection

Background Colon cancer constitutes one of the most frequent malignancies. Previous studies showed that Salmonella manipulates host cell signaling pathways and that Salmonella Typhimurium infection facilitates colon cancer development in genetically predisposed mice. This epidemiological study examined whether severe Salmonella infection, usually acquired from contaminated food, is ...

The honorific third person plural in Slavic

Although much has been written about polite forms of address in Slavic, the grammatical expression of respect for a person that does not take part in the conversation has hitherto received little to no attention. Yet this type of honorific reference is widely found in the Slavic languages, especially in dialects and substandard varieties. In the present article I shall distinguish ...

A novel fully covered double-bump stent for staple line leaks after bariatric surgery: a retrospective analysis

Background Staple line leakage after bariatric surgery can be treated by endoscopic placement of a self-expandable stent. The success rate of stent placement is generally high, but migration is a frequent adverse event that hampers successful treatment. The Niti-S Beta stent is a fully covered double-bump stent that was specifically designed to prevent migration. This study aimed ...

Laparoscopic conversion in colorectal cancer surgery; is there any improvement over time at a population level?

Conversion of laparoscopic colorectal cancer resection has been associated with worse outcome, but this might have been related to a learning curve effect. This study aimed to evaluate incidence, predictive factors and outcomes of laparoscopic conversion after the implementation phase of laparoscopic surgery at a population level. Patients undergoing elective resection of ...

Eye-Tracking Based Attention Bias Modification (ET-ABM) Facilitates Disengagement from Negative Stimuli in Dysphoric Individuals

To address shortcomings of purely reaction-time based attention bias modification (ABM) paradigms, a novel eye-tracking based ABM training (ET-ABM) was developed. This training targets the late disengagement from negative stimuli and the lack of attention for positive information, which are characteristics of depression. In the present study, 75 dysphoric students (BDI ≥ 9) were ...

Pulmonary Valve Morphology in Patients with Bicuspid Aortic Valves

The aortic and pulmonary valve share a common developmental origin from the embryonic arterial trunk. Bicuspid aortic valve is the most common congenital anomaly and can occur isolated as well as in association with other congenital heart disease (CHD). Data on pulmonary valve morphology in these cases are scarce. In this study, we aimed to determine pulmonary valve morphology in ...

Cognitive mechanisms for inferring the meaning of novel signals during symbolisation

As participants repeatedly interact using graphical signals (as in a game of Pictionary), the signals gradually shift from being iconic (or motivated) to being symbolic (or arbitrary). The aim here is to test experimentally whether this change in the form of the signal implies a concomitant shift in the inferential mechanisms needed to understand it. The results show that, during ...

Perceptions of healthcare quality in Ghana: Does health insurance status matter?

This study’s objective is to provide an alternative explanation for the low enrolment in health insurance in Ghana by analysing differences in perceptions between the insured and uninsured of the non-technical quality of healthcare. It further explores the association between insurance status and perception of healthcare quality to ascertain whether insurance status matters in the ...

Factors associated with the number and size of renal angiomyolipomas in sporadic angiomyolipoma (sAML): a study of adult patients with sAML managed in a Dutch tertiary referral center

Purpose To describe the patient characteristics, treatments, disease monitoring, and kidney function of patients with sporadic angiomyolipoma (sAML), stratified by the number and size of renal angiomyolipomas (AMLs). Methods Single-center retrospective analysis of patients with sAML treated from 1990 to 2015 in a dedicated clinic for inheritable tumor syndromes in a tertiary ...

Towards a Sedimentology of Information Infrastructures: a Geological Approach for Understanding the City

Drawing primarily on ethnographic research performed in a city in Romania, this paper provides a thick description of police practices and information systems in that municipality. It shows various ways in which technologies mediate policing practitioners’ perceptions, decisions and actions. Bringing some additional material from a case in the Dutch police in which they build risk ...

Fusarium ershadii sp. nov., a Pathogen on Asparagus officinalis and Musa acuminata

Two Fusarium strains, isolated from Asparagus in Italy and Musa in Vietnam respectively, proved to be members of an undescribed clade within the Fusarium solani species complex based on phylogenetic species recognition on ITS, partial RPB2 and EF-1α gene fragments. Macro- and micro-morphological investigations followed with physiological studies done on this new species: Fusarium ...

Diagnosis and management of long-bone nonunions: a nationwide survey

Purpose There is variability among surgeons on definitions regarding the degree of bone healing of long-bone fractures. A lack of consensus may negatively affect communication between surgeons, and lead to unintended and unwanted variability in treatment of patients suffering from abnormal healing of long-bone fractures. We aimed to identify differences between surgeons regarding ...

Inter- and intracellular colonization of Arabidopsis roots by endophytic actinobacteria and the impact of plant hormones on their antimicrobial activity

Many actinobacteria live in close association with eukaryotes such as fungi, insects, animals and plants. Plant-associated actinobacteria display (endo)symbiotic, saprophytic or pathogenic life styles, and can make up a substantial part of the endophytic community. Here, we characterised endophytic actinobacteria isolated from root tissue of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) ...

Biotic interactions enhance survival and fitness in the caddisfly Micropterna sequax (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae)

Patches of coarse particulate organic matter in lowland streams are inhabited by many different macroinvertebrate species, yet knowledge of interactions among the members of these assemblages is scarce. In a mesocosm experiment we aimed to determine the effect of interspecific interactions on species survival and fitness of two caddisfly species. It was hypothesized that, as a ...