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Implicit Measures of Actual Versus Ideal Body Image: Relations with Self-Reported Body Dissatisfaction and Dieting Behaviors

Body dissatisfaction refers to a negative appreciation of one’s own body stemming from a discrepancy between how one perceives his/her body (actual body image) and how he/she wants it to be (ideal body image). To circumvent the limitations of self-report measures of body image, measures were developed that allow for a distinction between actual and ideal body image at the...

Diffusion tensor MRI of the healthy brachial plexus

Introduction Diffusion Tensor MRI (DT-MRI) is a promising tool for the evaluation of brachial plexus pathology. Therefore, we introduce and evaluate a fast DT-MRI protocol (8min33s scanning with 5–10 min postprocessing time) for the brachial plexus. Materials and methods Thirty healthy volunteers within three age-groups (18–35, 36–55, and > 56) received DT-MRI of the brachial...

The Association Between Acute Pain and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Children and Adolescents 3 Months After Accidental Injury

Previous research suggests that acute pain is a risk factor for later posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). In a prospective cohort study, we examined the association between acute pain from accidental injury and PTSS in children and adolescents, taking into account factors potentially related to pain or posttraumatic stress. Participants were 135 children and adolescents, 8–18...

Long-term sequelae of sporadic cryptosporidiosis: a follow-up study

To determine the frequency of occurrence of sequelae following cryptosporidiosis. A follow-up study was performed during a case-control study for sporadic cryptosporidiosis in the Netherlands (2013–2016). Cryptosporidiosis cases were invited to complete a follow-up questionnaire 4 months after diagnosis. Using a case-crossover study design, we compared the frequencies of reported...

When individual life history matters: conditions for juvenile-adult stage structure effects on population dynamics

Ecological theory about the dynamics of interacting populations is mainly based on unstructured models that account for species abundances only. In turn, these models constitute the basis for our understanding of the functioning of ecological communities and ecosystems and their responses to environmental change, natural disturbances and human impacts. Structured models that take...

Successful Use of Advertisement Pictures to Assist Recall in a Food-Borne Hepatitis A Outbreak in The Netherlands, 2017

This study describes an outbreak investigation of 14 hepatitis A cases in the Netherlands. The hepatitis A virus (HAV) genotype IB sequences in cases were highly similar (459/460 nt). The origin of strains could be narrowed to Bulgaria based on information from EPIS-FWD. As an association with consumption of soft fruit was suspected, a case–control study was initiated using a...

Reduction of quantum systems and the local Gauss law

We give an operator-algebraic interpretation of the notion of an ideal generated by the unbounded operators associated with the elements of the Lie algebra of a Lie group that implements the symmetries of a quantum system. We use this interpretation to establish a link between Rieffel induction and the implementation of a local Gauss law in lattice gauge theories similar to the...

Causal null hypotheses of sustained treatment strategies: What can be tested with an instrumental variable?

Sometimes instrumental variable methods are used to test whether a causal effect is null rather than to estimate the magnitude of a causal effect. However, when instrumental variable methods are applied to time-varying exposures, as in many Mendelian randomization studies, it is unclear what causal null hypothesis is tested. Here, we consider different versions of causal null...

How ownership rights over microorganisms affect infectious disease control and innovation: A root-cause analysis of barriers to data sharing as experienced by key stakeholders

Background Genetic information of pathogens is an essential input for infectious disease control, public health and for research. Efficiency in preventing and responding to global outbreaks relies on timely access to such information. Still, ownership barriers stand in the way of timely sharing of genetic data from pathogens, frustrating efficient public health responses and...

Serious complications after button battery ingestion in children

Serious and fatal complications after button battery ingestion are increasing worldwide. The aim of this study is to describe serious complications after battery ingestion in children in the Netherlands.All pediatric gastroenterologists in the Netherlands performing upper endoscopies were asked to report all serious complications after battery ingestion in children (0–18 years...

The fastest spreader in SIS epidemics on networks

Identifying the fastest spreaders in epidemics on a network helps to ensure an efficient spreading. By ranking the average spreading time for different spreaders, we show that the fastest spreader may change with the effective infection rate of a SIS epidemic process, which means that the time-dependent influence of a node is usually strongly coupled to the dynamic process and...

Patient-pharmacist communication during a post-discharge pharmacist home visit

Background With the shifting role of community pharmacists towards patient education and counselling, they are well-positioned to conduct a post-discharge home visit which could prevent or solve drug-related problems. Gaining insight into the communication during these home visits could be valuable for optimizing and consequently improving patient safety at readmission to primary...

The effect of handedness on spatial and motor representation of pitch patterns in pianists

This study investigated the effect of handedness on pianists’ abilities to adjust their keyboard performance skills to new spatial and motor mappings. Left- and right-handed pianists practiced simple melodies on a regular MIDI piano keyboard (practice) and were then asked to perform these with modified melodic contours (the same or reversed melodic contour causing a change of...

The implications of community responses to intimate partner violence in Rwanda

Intimate partner violence (IPV) has significant impacts on mental health. Community-focused interventions have shown promising results for addressing IPV in low-income countries, however, little is known about the implications of these interventions for women’s mental wellbeing. This paper analyses data from a community-focused policy intervention in Rwanda collected in 2013–14...

A One-Year Survey of Norovirus in UK Oysters Collected at the Point of Sale

Contamination of bivalve shellfish, particularly oysters, with norovirus is recognised as a food safety risk and a potential contributor to the overall burden of gastroenteritis in the community. The United Kingdom (UK) has comprehensive national baseline data on the prevalence, levels, and seasonality of norovirus in oysters in production areas resulting from a previous two-year...

A migration effect? Comparing the acculturation of Russian migrant populations in Western Europe to Russians in three former soviet countries on attitudes towards government responsibility

In a number of recent articles migration has been used as a ‘natural experiment’, which can give insights into the general mechanisms of attitude formation. Studies from the field of psychology, however, suggest that the process of acculturation might be affected by migrants being in a particular situation. If such a ‘migration effect’ exists, then the conclusions on the more...

Quantifying in situ phenotypic variability in the hydraulic properties of four tree species across their distribution range in Europe

Many studies have reported that hydraulic properties vary considerably between tree species, but little is known about their intraspecific variation and, therefore, their capacity to adapt to a warmer and drier climate. Here, we quantify phenotypic divergence and clinal variation for embolism resistance, hydraulic conductivity and branch growth, in four tree species, two...