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Light Chain (AL) Amyloidosis: The Journey to Diagnosis

Background Light chain (AL) amyloidosis is a rare, complex disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Delays in diagnosis are common and may have detrimental consequences on patients’ prognosis. Too little is known regarding the patient journey to diagnosis. Objective The objective of this study was to describe the patient-reported journey to a correct diagnosis ...

Th17 cells are associated with protection from ventilator associated pneumonia

Background CD4+ T-helper 17 (Th17) cells and Interleukin (IL)-17A play an important role in clearing pathogens in mouse models of pneumonia. We hypothesized that numbers of Th17 cells and levels of IL-17A are associated with risk for nosocomial pneumonia in humans. Methods We collected bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from mechanically ventilated (n = 25) patients undergoing ...

Low-dose tolvaptan PK/PD: comparison of patients with hyponatremia due to syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion to healthy adults

Purpose Tolvaptan (TLV) is indicated to treat hyponatremia due to syndrome of inappropriate diuretic hormone (SIADH) in Europe. Treatment is to be initiated at 15 mg QD but post-approval reporting indicates increasing use of 7.5 mg as the starting dose. Physicians believe 7.5 mg is effective and has a lower incidence of overly rapid correction of serum sodium. Methods Single TLV ...

The use of aortic balloon occlusion in traumatic shock: first report from the ABO trauma registry

Purpose Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is a technique for temporary stabilization of patients with non-compressible torso hemorrhage. This technique has been increasingly used worldwide during the past decade. Despite the good outcomes of translational studies, clinical studies are divided. The aim of this multicenter-international study was to ...

Simultaneous Quantification of Free Cholesterol, Cholesteryl Esters, and Triglycerides without Ester Hydrolysis by UHPLC Separation and In-Source Collision Induced Dissociation Coupled MS/MS

We demonstrate the application of in-source nitrogen collision-induced dissociation (CID) that eliminates the need for ester hydrolysis before simultaneous analysis of esterified cholesterol (EC) and triglycerides (TG) along with free cholesterol (FC) from human serum, using normal phase liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) tandem ...

Population size estimation of female sex workers in Iran: Synthesis of methods and results

Introduction Estimating the number of key populations at risk of HIV is essential for planning, monitoring, and evaluating prevention, care, and treatment programmes. We conducted this study to estimate the number of female sex workers (FSW) in major cities of Iran. Methods We used three population size estimation methods (i.e., wisdom of the crowds, multiplier method, and network ...

Effect of teriflunomide on cortex-basal ganglia-thalamus (CxBGTh) circuit glutamatergic dysregulation in the Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus mouse model of multiple sclerosis

Background Pathology of gray matter is associated with development of physical and cognitive disability in patients with multiple sclerosis. In particular, glutamatergic dysregulation in the cortex-basal ganglia-thalamus (CxBGTh) circuit could be associated with decline in these behaviors. Objectives To investigate the effect of an immunomodulatory therapy (teriflunomide, Aubagio®) ...

Large –scale wheat flour folic acid fortification program increases plasma folate levels among women of reproductive age in urban Tanzania

There is widespread vitamin and mineral deficiency problem in Tanzania with known deficiencies of at least vitamin A, iron, folate and zinc, resulting in lasting negative consequences especially on maternal health, cognitive development and thus the nation’s economic potential. Folate deficiency is associated with significant adverse health effects among women of reproductive age, ...

A systematic review and meta-analysis of preclinical trials testing anti-toxin therapies for B. anthracis infection: A need for more robust study designs and results

Background B. anthracis anti-toxin agents are approved and included in the Strategic National Stockpile based primarily on animal infection trials. However, in the only anthrax outbreak an approved anti-toxin agent was administered in, survival did not differ comparing recipients and non-recipients, although recipients appeared sicker. Objective Employ a systematic review and ...

Orion: Detecting regions of the human non-coding genome that are intolerant to variation using population genetics

There is broad agreement that genetic mutations occurring outside of the protein-coding regions play a key role in human disease. Despite this consensus, we are not yet capable of discerning which portions of non-coding sequence are important in the context of human disease. Here, we present Orion, an approach that detects regions of the non-coding genome that are depleted of ...

Seminal plasma metabolomics approach for the diagnosis of unexplained male infertility

We used a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based metabolomics approach to obtain the metabolic profiling of unexplained male infertility (UMI), and identified seminal plasma biomarkers associated with UMI by a two-stage population study. A robust OPLS-DA model based on these identified metabolites was able to distinguish 82% of the UMI patients from health controls with ...

Ranking 93 health interventions for low- and middle-income countries by cost-effectiveness

Background Cost-effectiveness rankings of health interventions are useful inputs for national healthcare planning and budgeting. Previous comprehensive rankings for low- and middle- income countries were undertaken in 2005 and 2006, accompanying the development of strategies for the Millennium Development Goals. We update the rankings using studies published since 2000, as ...

Clinical profile and comorbidity of traumatic brain injury among younger and older men and women: a brief research notes

Objective Comorbid disorders influence the course and outcomes of rehabilitation following traumatic brain injury (TBI), yet sex- and age-related disparities in the frequency distribution of these disorders remain poorly understood. We aimed to describe comorbid disorders by the International Classification of Diseases in patients with TBI undergoing inpatient rehabilitation in ...

Detecting and analyzing research communities in longitudinal scientific networks

A growing body of evidence shows that collaborative teams and communities tend to produce the highest-impact scientific work. This paper proposes a new method to (1) Identify collaborative communities in longitudinal scientific networks, and (2) Evaluate the impact of specific research institutes, services or policies on the interdisciplinary collaboration between these ...

Breast conservation surgery versus total mastectomy among women with localized breast cancer in Soweto, South Africa

Purpose Breast conserving surgery (BCS) has become the preferred surgical option for the management of patients with nonmetastatic breast cancer in high-income countries. However, little is known about the distribution and determinants of BCS in low-and middle-income countries, especially those with high HIV prevalence. Methods We compared demographic and clinical characteristics ...

Measuring links between labor monopsony and the gender pay gap in Brazil

This paper focuses on gender differences in job mobility and earnings for workers in Brazil. Monopsony theory suggests a link between the wage elasticity of labor supply and wage penalties. Should one group of workers be less elastic in their supply choices, that group is predicted to earn less than others. To measure wage elasticity, I estimate a hazard model on voluntary job ...

Comparative genomics of two super-shedder isolates of Escherichia coli O157:H7

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) are zoonotic foodborne pathogens and of major public health concern that cause considerable intestinal and extra-intestinal illnesses in humans. O157 colonize the recto-anal junction (RAJ) of asymptomatic cattle who shed the bacterium into the environment through fecal matter. A small subset of cattle, termed super-shedders ...

Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection modulates expression of megakaryocyte cell cycle genes through phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase signaling

Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis infects neutrophils and other cells from hematopoietic origin. Using human megakaryocytic cell line, MEG-01, we show that expression of cell cycle genes in these cells are altered upon A. phagocytophilum infection. Expression of several cell cycle genes in MEG-01 cells was significantly up regulated at early ...