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Comparative study on the corrosion behavior of X52, 3Cr, and 13Cr steel in an O2–H2O–CO2 system: products, reaction kinetics, and pitting sensitivity

The corrosion behaviors of X52, 3Cr low-alloy steel, and 13Cr stainless steel were investigated in an O2–H2O–CO2 environment at various temperatures and O2–CO2 partial-pressure ratios. The results showed that the corrosion rates of X52, 3Cr, and 13Cr steels increased with increasing temperature. The corrosion rates slowly increased at temperatures less than 100°C and increased ...

Effects of Long-Term Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution on Lung Function in Children

Lung function in early life has been shown to be an important predictor for peak lung function in adults and later decline. Reduced lung function per se is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. With this review, we aim to summarize the current epidemiological evidence on the effect of traffic-related air pollution on lung function in children and adolescents. We focus ...

Investigation of rheo-diecasting mold filling of semi-solid A380 aluminum alloy slurry

The rheo-diecasting mold filling capacity and the microstructure of the semi-solid A380 aluminum alloy slurry were investigated. The results show that the mold filling capacity was strengthened with increasing pouring temperature or increasing injection pressure. Under certain process parameters, the mold cavity was fully filled. However, the mold filling capacity decreased with ...

The burden of headache disorders in Ethiopia: national estimates from a population-based door-to-door survey

Background Headache disorders are the third-highest cause of disability worldwide, with migraine and medication-overuse headache (MOH) the major contributors. In Ethiopia we have shown these disorders to be highly prevalent: migraine 17.7%, TTH 20.6%, probable MOH (pMOH) 0.7%, any headache yesterday (HY) 6.4%. To inform local health policy, we now estimate disability and other ...

08SG2/OsBAK1 regulates grain size and number, and functions differently in Indica and Japonica backgrounds in rice

Background Both grain size and grain number are significant for rice yield. In the past decade, a number of genes related to grain size and grain number have been documented, however, the regulatory mechanisms underlying them remains ambiguous. Results We identified a rice small grain (sg2) mutant in an EMS mutant library generated from an indica variety, Shuhui498. Using the ...

Etching characteristics of Si{110} in 20 wt% KOH with addition of hydroxylamine for the fabrication of bulk micromachined MEMS

Anisotropic wet etching is a most widely employed for the fabrication of MEMS/NEMS structures using silicon bulk micromachining. The use of Si{110} in MEMS is inevitable when a microstructure with vertical sidewall is to be fabricated using wet anisotropic etching. In most commonly employed etchants (i.e. TMAH and KOH), potassium hydroxide (KOH) exhibits higher etch rate and ...

Chemical composition analysis of the essential oil of Mentha piperita L. from Kermanshah, Iran by hydrodistillation and HS/SPME methods

Background The volatile constituents from the aerial parts of Mentha piperita L. (peppermint) which were collected from cultivate growing plants in Kermanshah (Garreban; at the east of Kermanshah City) of Iran were extracted by hydrodistillation and headspace/solid-phase micro-extraction (HS/SPME) methods and were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass ...

Microbial profile of common spices and spice blends used in Tamale, Ghana

Background The main purpose of using spice to grill meat is to add aroma, colour, flavour, taste and pungency. However, the purpose is sometime befitted when spice is contaminated with pathogenic bacteria that result in foodborne illnesses and toxicological effect. Results The study was necessitated by paucity information on handling practices and microbial load common spices used ...

Impact of power system network topology errors on real-time locational marginal price

This paper examines the impact of power transmission network topology change on locational marginal price (LMP) in real-time power markets. We consider the case where the false status of circuit breakers (CBs) that bypass topology error processing can generate an incorrect power system network topology, subsequently distorting the results of the state estimation and economic ...

A fascia lata free flap in pelvic exenteration for Fournier gangrene due to advanced rectal cancer: a case report

Background Fournier gangrene due to advanced rectal cancer is a rapidly progressive gangrene of the perineum and buttocks. Emergency surgical debridement of necrotic tissue is crucial, and secondary surgery to resect tumors is necessary for wound healing. However, pelvic exenteration damages the pelvic floor, increasing the likelihood of herniation of internal organs into the ...

Evaluating the impacts of using cargo cycles on urban logistics: integrating traffic, environmental and operational boundaries

Introduction European Commission has promoted actions and policies with the aim of reducing the negative impacts on traffic and environment caused by city logistics. One increasingly popular measure is the use of cargo bikes in city logistics due to their improved energy efficiency, lower emissions and lower traffic disturbance. The paper assess the impacts of electric cargo bikes, ...

Probabilistic hazard modelling of rain-triggered lahars

Probabilistic quantification of lahar hazard is an important component of lahar risk assessment and mitigation. Here we propose a new approach to probabilistic lahar hazard assessment through coupling a lahar susceptibility model with a shallow-layer lahar flow model. Initial lahar volumes and their probabilities are quantified using the lahar susceptibility model which establishes ...

How concentrated is crime at places? A systematic review from 1970 to 2015

Background Despite the increasing awareness and interests about the importance of crime concentration at places, scholars have not comprehensively synthesized the body of evidence related to this thesis. We conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence that crime is concentrated among places. Methods We identified 44 studies that empirically examined crime ...

Socioeconomic inequality of diabetes patients’ health care utilization in Denmark

Understanding socioeconomic inequalities in health care is critical for achieving health equity. The aim of this paper is threefold: 1) to quantify inequality in diabetes health care service utilization; 2) to understand determinants of these inequalities in relation to socio-demographic and clinical morbidity factors; and 3) to compare the empirical outcome of using income level ...

Report on potential sampling biases in the LaMEVE database of global volcanism

We investigate whether the disproportionate contribution of individual volcanoes in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruption database (LaMEVE) potentially compromises the treatment of LaMEVE as a globally representative database of volcanic activity. We find that 41% of volcanoes which contribute at least one eruption to LaMEVE only contribute one eruption (10% of all ...

Methodology for Determining Dwell Times Consistent with Passenger Flows in the Case of Metro Services

The importance of a mobility system based on railway technology as the backbone of public transport is now widely acknowledged. Indeed, rail systems are green, high performing, smart and able to ensure a high degree of safety. Therefore, modal split should be steered towards rail transport by increasing the attractiveness of this transport mode. In this context, a key element is ...

Concern noted: a descriptive study of editorial expressions of concern in PubMed and PubMed Central

Background An editorial expression of concern (EEoC) is issued by editors or publishers to draw attention to potential problems in a publication, without itself constituting a retraction or correction. Methods We searched PubMed, PubMed Central (PMC), and Google Scholar to identify EEoCs issued for publications in PubMed and PMC up to 22 August 2016. We also searched the archives ...

Flexible unbalanced control with peak current limitation for virtual synchronous generator under voltage sags

Virtual synchronous generator (VSG) is grid-friendly for integrating distributed generations (DGs) since it can emulate the operation mechanism of traditional synchronous generator (SG). However, the traditional VSG control strategy, which is mainly suitable for balanced voltage conditions, may lead to power oscillations, current unbalance and even overcurrent under unbalanced ...

Synthesis and characterization of silica nanostructures for cotton leaf worm control

Herein, silica nanostructures with various physicochemical characteristics were synthesized via surfactant-assisted methods. Potent entomotoxic effects of silica nanostructures were explored against cotton leaf worm (Spodoptera littoralis) for the first time by utilizing surface contact and feeding bioassay protocols. The mortality of the treated larvaes by surface contact was ...

The fifty highest cited papers in anterior cruciate ligament injury

Introduction The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most common injured knee ligaments and at the same time, one of the most frequent injuries seen in the sport orthopaedic practice. Due to the clinical relevance of ACL injuries, numerous papers focussing on this topic including biomechanical-, basic science-, clinical- or animal studies, were published. The purpose of ...