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Effects of astaxanthin on antioxidant capacity of golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) in vivo and in vitro

The objective of this research was to study the effect of astaxanthin (AST) on growth performance and antioxidant capacity in golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) both in vivo and in vitro. In the in vivo study, two diets were formulated with or without astaxanthin supplementation (D1 and D2; 0 and 200 mg/kg) to feed fish for 6 weeks. In the in vitro study, cells from hepatopancreas ...

Encouraging rational antibiotic use in childhood pneumonia: a focus on Vietnam and the Western Pacific Region

Globally, pneumonia is considered to be the biggest killer of infants and young children (aged <5 years) outside the neonatal period, with the greatest disease burden in low- and middle-income countries. Optimal management of childhood pneumonia is challenging in settings where clinicians have limited information regarding the local pathogen and drug resistance profiles. This ...

Variation in rotavirus vaccine coverage by sub-counties in Kenya

Rotavirus gastroenteritis is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in Kenya. In July 2014, Kenya introduced the rotavirus vaccine into her national immunization program. Although immunization coverage is crucial in assessing the real-world impact of this vaccine, variability in the vaccine coverage across the country is likely to occur. In view of this, we ...

Efficacy of Saxagliptin versus Mitiglinid in patients with type 2 diabetes and end-stage renal disease

Background There are very few oral antidiabetic drugs recommended for patients on dialysis. Saxagliptin is known for its potent effect and long duration of action. In this study, we compared the efficacy of Saxagliptin with Mitiglinid for diabetes control and renal anemia in hemodialysis patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods We performed a 6-month prospective, open-label, ...

Isolated splenic tuberculosis with subsequent paradoxical deterioration: a case report

Background Isolated tuberculosis of the spleen has been described occasionally in literature, mostly in immunosuppressed individuals with various risk factors. Sequestration in the spleen makes such Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection difficult to diagnose. This report describes an extremely rare case of isolated splenic tuberculosis in an immunocompetent individual. Case ...

Aberrant DNA methylation and expression of SPDEF and FOXA2 in airway epithelium of patients with COPD

Background Goblet cell metaplasia, a common feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is associated with mucus hypersecretion which contributes to the morbidity and mortality among patients. Transcription factors SAM-pointed domain-containing Ets-like factor (SPDEF) and forkhead box protein A2 (FOXA2) regulate goblet cell differentiation. This study aimed to (1) ...

PathOS: a decision support system for reporting high throughput sequencing of cancers in clinical diagnostic laboratories

Background The increasing affordability of DNA sequencing has allowed it to be widely deployed in pathology laboratories. However, this has exposed many issues with the analysis and reporting of variants for clinical diagnostic use. Implementing a high-throughput sequencing (NGS) clinical reporting system requires a diverse combination of capabilities, statistical methods to ...

Proteomic profiling of human intraschisis cavity fluid

Background X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) is a vitreoretinal degenerative disorder causing vision deterioration, due to structural defects in retina. The hallmark of this disease includes radial streaks arising from the fovea and splitting of inner retinal layers (schisis). Although these retinal changes are attributed to mutations in the retinoschisin gene, schisis is also observed ...

Evaluation of hip abductor and adductor strength in the elderly: a reliability study

Background In elderly individuals an increased muscle strength contributes to the diminution of the falls risk and associated adverse events. An increasing interest in lateral control exists due to the fatal consequences of postero-lateral falls. Therefore a proper assessment of frontal plane hip muscle strength in elderly is important but remains challenging. Therefore we aimed to ...

Strategies for monitoring and combating resistance to combination kinase inhibitors for cancer therapy

Targeted therapies such as kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies have dramatically altered cancer care in recent decades. Although these targeted therapies have improved patient outcomes in several cancer types, resistance ultimately develops to these agents. One potential strategy proposed to overcome acquired resistance involves taking repeat tumor biopsies at the time of ...

Epigenetic assays for chemical biology and drug discovery

The implication of epigenetic abnormalities in many diseases and the approval of a number of compounds that modulate specific epigenetic targets in a therapeutically relevant manner in cancer specifically confirms that some of these targets are druggable by small molecules. Furthermore, a number of compounds are currently in clinical trials for other diseases including ...

Does concurrent chemoradiotherapy preceded by chemotherapy improve survival in locally advanced nasopharyngeal cancer patients? Experience from Ghana

Background To find out how chemotherapy given prior to concurrent chemoradiotherapy compares with concurrent chemoradiation alone in the treatment of locally advanced nasopharyngeal cancer. Methods Patient charts were examined and found to have submitted to one of two regimes as follows: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy consisting of Cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil followed by concurrent ...

Effect of the Brazilian iron fortification of wheat and corn flour on the nutritional iron status in adolescents, 6 years after its implementation

Background As it is difficult to know the content of iron added in the Brazilian iron fortification of wheat and corn flour, and if the compound has good or poor bioavailability, the objective was to assess the effect of the Brazilian iron fortification program, as it was carried out, on iron nutritional status of adolescents, 6 years after its implementation. Methods A ...

Profile and professional expectations of medical students from 11 Latin American countries: the Red-LIRHUS project

Background Latin America is undergoing a human resource crisis in health care in terms of labor shortage, misdistribution and poor orientation to primary care. Workforce data are needed to inform the planning of long-term strategies to address this problem. This study aimed to evaluate the academic and motivational profile, as well as the professional expectations, of Latin ...

A clinical perspective on the utility of alpha 1 antichymotrypsin for the early diagnosis of calcific aortic stenosis

Background Calcific aortic stenosis (CAS) is the most common heart valve disease in the elderly, representing an important economic and social burden in developed countries. Currently, there is no way to predict either the onset or progression of CAS, emphasizing the need to identify useful biomarkers for this condition. Methods We performed a multi-proteomic analysis on different ...

Orientation and food search behaviour of a deep sea lobster in turbulent versus laminar odour plumes

New Zealand scampi (Metanephrops challengeri) is a commercially important deep-water lobster species that is caught by bottom trawling on areas of muddy seafloor on the continental shelf below 300 m. Efforts are being made to develop lower impact potting methods to harvest scampi, however, they can only be caught when out of their burrows and searching for food. This emergent food ...

Regeneration of full-thickness skin defects by differentiated adipose-derived stem cells into fibroblast-like cells by fibroblast-conditioned medium

Background Fibroblasts are ubiquitous cells in the human body and are absolutely necessary for wound healing such as for injured skin. This role of fibroblasts was the reason why we aimed to differentiate human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) into fibroblasts and to test their wound healing potency. Recent reports on hADSC-derived conditioned medium have indicated stimulation ...

Urolithiasis analysis in a multiethnic population at a tertiary hospital in Nairobi, Kenya

Background Urolithiasis is a global problem whose incidence is reported to be on the rise across the world. Previously, urolithiasis was reported as being rare among the indigenous African population but recent data suggest otherwise. This study reviewed the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with urolithiasis seen at the Aga Khan University hospital Nairobi ...

Cord blood hematopoietic cells from preterm infants display altered DNA methylation patterns

Background Premature infants are highly vulnerable to infection. This is partly attributable to the preterm immune system, which differs from that of the term neonate in cell composition and function. Multiple studies have found differential DNA methylation (DNAm) between preterm and term infants’ cord blood; however, interpretation of these studies is limited by the confounding ...

Electrical control of calcium oscillations in mesenchymal stem cells using microsecond pulsed electric fields

Background Human mesenchymal stem cells are promising tools for regenerative medicine due to their ability to differentiate into many cellular types such as osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes amongst many other cell types. These cells present spontaneous calcium oscillations implicating calcium channels and pumps of the plasma membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum. These ...