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5-Formylcytosine mediated DNA–protein cross-links block DNA replication and induce mutations in human cells

5-Formylcytosine (5fC) is an epigenetic DNA modification introduced via TET protein-mediated oxidation of 5-methyl-dC. We recently reported that 5fC form reversible DNA–protein conjugates (DPCs) with histone proteins in living cells (Ji et al. (2017) Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 56:14130–14134). We now examined the effects of 5fC mediated DPCs on DNA replication. Synthetic DNA duplexes...

Universal school lunch programme closes a socioeconomic gap in fruit and vegetable intakes among school children in Japan

Universal school lunch programmes are expected to cover all children equally, compared with selective programmes that may stigmatize socially vulnerable children. However, the effectiveness of universal programmes in closing dietary disparity has not been empirically proven. We evaluated whether Japan’s universal school lunch programmes contribute to a reduction in the...

Bacterial EndoMS/NucS acts as a clamp-mediated mismatch endonuclease to prevent asymmetric accumulation of replication errors

Mismatch repair (MMR) systems based on MutS eliminate mismatches originating from replication errors. Despite extensive conservation of mutS homologues throughout the three domains of life, Actinobacteria and some archaea do not have genes homologous to mutS. Here, we report that EndoMS/NucS of Corynebacterium glutamicum is the mismatch-specific endonuclease that functions...

CoNekT: an open-source framework for comparative genomic and transcriptomic network analyses

The recent accumulation of gene expression data in the form of RNA sequencing creates unprecedented opportunities to study gene regulation and function. Furthermore, comparative analysis of the expression data from multiple species can elucidate which functional gene modules are conserved across species, allowing the study of the evolution of these modules. However, performing...

Testing the plant pneumatic method to estimate xylem embolism resistance in stems of temperate trees

Methods to estimate xylem embolism resistance generally rely on hydraulic measurements, which can be far from straightforward. Recently, a pneumatic method based on air flow measurements of terminal branch ends was proposed to construct vulnerability curves by linking the amount of air extracted from a branch with the degree of embolism. We applied this novel technique for 10...

Neuroprotective effects of Quercetin on radiation-induced brain injury in rats

Extensive research has been focused on radiation-induced brain injury. Animal and human studies have shown that flavonoids have remarkable toxicological profiles. This study aims to investigate the neuroprotective effects of quercetin in an experimental radiation-induced brain injury. A total of 32 adult male Wistar-Albino rats were randomly divided into four groups (control...

Diagnostic Approach for Classic Compared With Localized Whipple Disease

Whipple disease (WD), a rare systemic infection caused by Tropheryma whipplei, can be a diagnostic challenge due to its variable presentation. The role of T. whipplei polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is unclear as small bowel biopsy with Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining remains the diagnostic gold standard. Individualized diagnostic approaches based on variable clinical...

Providers’ assessment of a novel interactive health information technology in a pediatric intensive care unit

To explore perceptions of critical care providers about a novel collaborative inpatient health information technology (HIT) in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) setting.

Chromosome 14q32.2 Imprinted Region Disruption as an Alternative Molecular Diagnosis of Silver-Russell Syndrome

Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) (mainly secondary to 11p15 molecular disruption) and Temple syndrome (TS) (secondary to 14q32.2 molecular disruption) are imprinting disorders with phenotypic (prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, early feeding difficulties) and molecular overlap.

Liana and tree below-ground water competition—evidence for water resource partitioning during the dry season

To date, reasons for the increase in liana abundance and biomass in the Neotropics are still unclear. One proposed hypothesis suggests that lianas, in comparison with trees, are more adaptable to drought conditions. Moreover, previous studies have assumed that lianas have a deeper root system, which provides access to deeper soil layers, thereby making them less susceptible to...

A novel adeno-associated virus capsid with enhanced neurotropism corrects a lysosomal transmembrane enzyme deficiency

Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are popular in vivo gene transfer vehicles. However, vector doses needed to achieve therapeutic effect are high and some target tissues in the central nervous system remain difficult to transduce. Gene therapy trials using AAV for the treatment of neurological disorders have seldom led to demonstrated clinical efficacy. Important...

Number of Risky Lifestyle Behaviors and Breast Cancer Risk

Lifestyle factors are associated with overall breast cancer risk, but less is known about their associations, alone or jointly, with risk of specific breast cancer subtypes.

Testing a longitudinal compensation model in premanifest Huntington’s disease

The initial stages of neurodegeneration are commonly marked by normal levels of cognitive and motor performance despite the presence of structural brain pathology. Compensation is widely assumed to account for this preserved behaviour, but despite the apparent simplicity of such a concept, it has proven incredibly difficult to demonstrate such a phenomenon and distinguish it from...

Informatics can help providers incorporate context into care

Most determinants of health originate from the “contexts” in which we live, which has remained outside the confines of the U.S. healthcare system. This issue has left providers unprepared to operate with an ample understanding of the challenges patients may face beyond their purview. The recent shift to value-based care and increasing prevalence of Electronic Health Record (EHR...

The Current Understanding of the Endocrine Effects From Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors and Recommendations for Management

Clinical trials in the past decade have established the antitumor effects of immune checkpoint inhibition as a revolutionary treatment for cancer. Namely, blocking antibodies to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 and programmed death 1 or its ligand have reached routine clinical use. Manipulation of the immune system is not without side effects, and autoimmune toxicities often...

The effects of body region, season and external arsenic application on hair cortisol concentration

Hair cortisol analysis has been used to quantify hormone levels in circulation in several mammal species. Hair remains stable for decades or centuries, allowing researchers to use archived hair samples to investigate hormone levels that span long time periods. However, several studies have found that intra-individual variability, driven by the body region from which a sample is...

The c-Abl inhibitor, Radotinib HCl, is neuroprotective in a preclinical Parkinson’s disease mouse model

Accumulating evidence suggests that the non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-Abl plays an important role in the progression of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and c-Abl inhibition could be neuroprotective in PD and related α-synucleinopathies. Nilotinib, a c-Abl inhibitor, has shown improved motor and cognitive symptoms in PD patients. However, issues concerning blood–brain barrier (BBB...

An inventory of supranational antimicrobial resistance surveillance networks involving low- and middle-income countries since 2000

Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) shoulder the bulk of the global burden of infectious diseases and drug resistance. We searched for supranational networks performing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance in LMICs and assessed their organization, methodology, impacts and challenges. Since 2000, 72 supranational networks for AMR surveillance in bacteria, fungi, HIV...

The Potential for Treatment Shortening With Higher Rifampicin Doses: Relating Drug Exposure to Treatment Response in Patients With Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis remains a huge public health problem and the prolonged treatment duration obstructs effective tuberculosis control. Higher rifampicin doses have been associated with better bactericidal activity, but optimal dosing is uncertain. This analysis aimed to characterize the relationship between rifampicin plasma exposure and treatment response over 6 months in a recent...