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Structured sampling and fast reconstruction of smooth graph signals

This work concerns sampling of smooth signals on arbitrary graphs. We first study a structured sampling strategy for such smooth graph signals that consists of a random selection of few pre-defined groups of nodes. The number of groups to sample to stably embed the set of k-bandlimited signals is driven by a quantity called the group graph cumulative coherence. For some optimized...

Differential analysis of chromatin accessibility and histone modifications for predicting mouse developmental enhancers

Enhancers are distal cis-regulatory elements that modulate gene expression. They are depleted of nucleosomes and enriched in specific histone modifications; thus, calling DNase-seq and histone mark ChIP-seq peaks can predict enhancers. We evaluated nine peak-calling algorithms for predicting enhancers validated by transgenic mouse assays. DNase and H3K27ac peaks were consistently...

The Contribution of Purifying Selection, Linkage, and Mutation Bias to the Negative Correlation between Gene Expression and Polymorphism Density in Yeast Populations

The negative correlation between the rate of protein evolution and expression level of a gene has been recognized as a universal law of the evolutionary biology (Koonin 2011). In our study, we apply a population-based approach to systematically investigate the relative importance of unequal mutation rate, linkage, and selection in the origin of the expression-polymorphism...

New horizons in the compression of functional decline

Population ageing, which has come about through the combination of increases in life expectancy, larger post-war cohorts reaching older age and reductions in fertility, is challenging societies and particularly health and care providers, worldwide. In Europe, the USA and Japan, there have been increases in years spent with disability and dependency. The majority of such research...

Le TDAH chez les enfants et les adolescents, partie 1 : l’étiologie, le diagnostic et la comorbidité

Le trouble de déficit de l’attention/hyperactivité (TDAH) est un trouble neurodéveloppemental chronique. La Société canadienne de pédiatrie a préparé trois documents de principes après avoir effectué des analyses bibliographiques systématiques. Leurs objectifs s’établissent comme suit :

Cell line-based xenograft mouse model of paediatric glioma stem cells mirrors the clinical course of the patient

The leading cause of cancer-related mortality among children is brain tumour, and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) has the worst prognosis. New treatments are urgently needed, but with few cases and clinical trials in children, pre-clinical models such as patient-derived tumour xenografts (PDTX) are important. To generate these, tumour tissue is transplanted into mice, but this...

Making Sense of Pharmacology: Inverse Agonism and Functional Selectivity

Constitutive receptor activity/inverse agonism and functional selectivity/biased agonism are 2 concepts in contemporary pharmacology that have major implications for the use of drugs in medicine and research as well as for the processes of new drug development. Traditional receptor theory postulated that receptors in a population are quiescent unless activated by a ligand. Within...

Shared nucleotide flanks confer transcriptional competency to bZip core motifs

Sequence-specific DNA binding recruits transcription factors (TFs) to the genome to regulate gene expression. Here, we perform high resolution mapping of CEBP proteins to determine how sequence dictates genomic occupancy. We demonstrate a fundamental difference between the sequence repertoire utilized by CEBPs in vivo versus the palindromic sequence preference reported by...

Efficient CRISPR/Cas9-mediated editing of trinucleotide repeat expansion in myotonic dystrophy patient-derived iPS and myogenic cells

CRISPR/Cas9 is an attractive platform to potentially correct dominant genetic diseases by gene editing with unprecedented precision. In the current proof-of-principle study, we explored the use of CRISPR/Cas9 for gene-editing in myotonic dystrophy type-1 (DM1), an autosomal-dominant muscle disorder, by excising the CTG-repeat expansion in the 3′-untranslated-region (UTR) of the...

Thinking of attachment figures blocks differential fear conditioning

Thinking of attachment figures can potentially impact acquisition and extinction of fear memories. In this study, 50 participants underwent a fear conditioning and extinction paradigm. Half the participants thought about a supportive attachment figure and half thought about a non-attachment positive experience prior to the fear conditioning. All participants then underwent a...

Bidirectional regulation of adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing by DEAH box helicase 9 (DHX9) in cancer

Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing entails the enzymatic deamination of adenosines to inosines by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs). Dysregulated A-to-I editing has been implicated in various diseases, including cancers. However, the precise factors governing the A-to-I editing and their physiopathological implications remain as a long-standing question. Herein...

Single molecule tracking reveals that the bacterial SMC complex moves slowly relative to the diffusion of the chromosome

Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes (SMC) proteins and their complex partners (ScpA and ScpB in many bacteria) are involved in chromosome compaction and segregation in all kinds of organisms. We employed single molecule tracking (SMT), tracking of chromosomal loci, and single molecule counting in Bacillus subtilis to show that in slow growing cells, ∼30 Smc dimers move...

Cardiogenic shock as the first manifestation of large vessel vasculitis in a young patient: case report

Cardiogenic shock secondary to coronary involvement in large vessel vasculitis (LVV) is an unsuspected finding, even more, when no other vascular territories are compromised and when it constitutes the initial clinical manifestation. This case report illustrates a case in which a complete diagnostic study uncovered this aetiology.

Pupillometer Use: Validation for Use in Military and Occupational Medical Surveillance and Response to Organophosphate and Chemical Warfare Agent Exposure

To analyze the effectiveness and suitability of pupillometer use in military and occupational medicine, specifically when pupil size is measured as part of medical surveillance. Pupil size is the most sensitive physical exam finding in vapor exposure to substances that inhibit acetylcholinesterase, such as nerve agent (chemical warfare) and organophosphates (used in agriculture...