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Oral Vancomycin Followed by Fecal Transplantation Versus Tapering Oral Vancomycin Treatment for Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection: An Open-Label, Randomized Controlled Trial

Background. Fecal transplantation (FT) is a promising treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), but its true effectiveness remains unknown. We compared 14 days of oral vancomycin followed by a single FT by enema with oral vancomycin taper (standard of care) in adult patients experiencing acute recurrence of CDI.

Natural History of Cryptosporidiosis in a Birth Cohort in Southern India

Background. Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of moderate to severe childhood diarrhea in resource-poor settings. Understanding the natural history of cryptosporidiosis and the correlates of protection are essential to develop effective and sustainable approaches to disease control and prevention.

Reactive sulfur species regulate tRNA methylthiolation and contribute to insulin secretion

The 2-methylthio (ms2) modification at A37 of tRNAs is critical for accurate decoding, and contributes to metabolic homeostasis in mammals. However, the regulatory mechanism of ms2 modification remains largely unknown. Here, we report that cysteine hydropersulfide (CysSSH), a newly identified reactive sulfur species, is involved in ms2 modification in cells. The suppression of ...

The bromodomain protein BRD4 regulates splicing during heat shock

The cellular response to heat stress is an ancient and evolutionarily highly conserved defence mechanism characterised by the transcriptional up-regulation of cyto-protective genes and a partial inhibition of splicing. These features closely resemble the proteotoxic stress response during tumor development. The bromodomain protein BRD4 has been identified as an integral member of ...

A genome wide dosage suppressor network reveals genomic robustness

Genomic robustness is the extent to which an organism has evolved to withstand the effects of deleterious mutations. We explored the extent of genomic robustness in budding yeast by genome wide dosage suppressor analysis of 53 conditional lethal mutations in cell division cycle and RNA synthesis related genes, revealing 660 suppressor interactions of which 642 are novel. This ...

Topology independent comparison of RNA 3D structures using the CLICK algorithm

RNA molecules are attractive therapeutic targets because non-coding RNA molecules have increasingly been found to play key regulatory roles in the cell. Comparing and classifying RNA 3D structures yields unique insights into RNA evolution and function. With the rapid increase in the number of atomic-resolution RNA structures, it is crucial to have effective tools to classify RNA ...

A double-strand break can trigger immunoglobulin gene conversion

All three B cell-specific activities of the immunoglobulin (Ig) gene re-modeling system—gene conversion, somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination—require activation-induced deaminase (AID). AID-induced DNA lesions must be further processed and dissected into different DNA recombination pathways. In order to characterize potential intermediates for Ig gene conversion, we ...

ChIA-PET2: a versatile and flexible pipeline for ChIA-PET data analysis

ChIA-PET2 is a versatile and flexible pipeline for analyzing different types of ChIA-PET data from raw sequencing reads to chromatin loops. ChIA-PET2 integrates all steps required for ChIA-PET data analysis, including linker trimming, read alignment, duplicate removal, peak calling and chromatin loop calling. It supports different kinds of ChIA-PET data generated from different ...

Asymmetric positioning of Cas1–2 complex and Integration Host Factor induced DNA bending guide the unidirectional homing of protospacer in CRISPR-Cas type I-E system

CRISPR–Cas system epitomizes prokaryote-specific quintessential adaptive defense machinery that limits the genome invasion of mobile genetic elements. It confers adaptive immunity to bacteria by capturing a protospacer fragment from invading foreign DNA, which is later inserted into the leader proximal end of CRIPSR array and serves as immunological memory to recognize recurrent ...

Esc2 promotes Mus81 complex-activity via its SUMO-like and DNA binding domains

Replication across damaged DNA templates is accompanied by transient formation of sister chromatid junctions (SCJs). Cells lacking Esc2, an adaptor protein containing no known enzymatic domains, are defective in the metabolism of these SCJs. However, how Esc2 is involved in the metabolism of SCJs remains elusive. Here we show interaction between Esc2 and a structure-specific ...

Temporal self-regulation of transposition through host-independent transposase rodlet formation

Transposons are highly abundant in eukaryotic genomes, but their mobilization must be finely tuned to maintain host organism fitness and allow for transposon propagation. Forty percent of the human genome is comprised of transposable element sequences, and the most abundant cut-and-paste transposons are from the hAT superfamily. We found that the hAT transposase TcBuster from ...

SPOP-containing complex regulates SETD2 stability and H3K36me3-coupled alternative splicing

Trimethylation of histone H3K36 is a chromatin mark associated with active gene expression, which has been implicated in coupling transcription with mRNA splicing and DNA damage response. SETD2 is a major H3K36 trimethyltransferase, which has been implicated as a tumor suppressor in mammals. Here, we report the regulation of SETD2 protein stability by the proteasome system, and the ...

Co-regulation of paralog genes in the three-dimensional chromatin architecture

Paralog genes arise from gene duplication events during evolution, which often lead to similar proteins that cooperate in common pathways and in protein complexes. Consequently, paralogs show correlation in gene expression whereby the mechanisms of co-regulation remain unclear. In eukaryotes, genes are regulated in part by distal enhancer elements through looping interactions with ...

Structures of human SRP72 complexes provide insights into SRP RNA remodeling and ribosome interaction

Co-translational protein targeting and membrane protein insertion is a fundamental process and depends on the signal recognition particle (SRP). In mammals, SRP is composed of the SRP RNA crucial for SRP assembly and function and six proteins. The two largest proteins SRP68 and SRP72 form a heterodimer and bind to a regulatory site of the SRP RNA. Despite their essential roles in ...

Enabling the democratization of the genomics revolution with a fully integrated web-based bioinformatics platform

Continued advancements in sequencing technologies have fueled the development of new sequencing applications and promise to flood current databases with raw data. A number of factors prevent the seamless and easy use of these data, including the breadth of project goals, the wide array of tools that individually perform fractions of any given analysis, the large number of ...

Methods to increase reproducibility in differential gene expression via meta-analysis

Findings from clinical and biological studies are often not reproducible when tested in independent cohorts. Due to the testing of a large number of hypotheses and relatively small sample sizes, results from whole-genome expression studies in particular are often not reproducible. Compared to single-study analysis, gene expression meta-analysis can improve reproducibility by ...

BRD4 localization to lineage-specific enhancers is associated with a distinct transcription factor repertoire

Proper temporal epigenetic regulation of gene expression is essential for cell fate determination and tissue development. The Bromodomain-containing Protein-4 (BRD4) was previously shown to control the transcription of defined subsets of genes in various cell systems. In this study we examined the role of BRD4 in promoting lineage-specific gene expression and show that BRD4 is ...

Structure and folding of the Tetrahymena telomerase RNA pseudoknot

Telomerase maintains telomere length at the ends of linear chromosomes using an integral telomerase RNA (TER) and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT). An essential part of TER is the template/pseudoknot domain (t/PK) which includes the template, for adding telomeric repeats, template boundary element (TBE), and pseudoknot, enclosed in a circle by stem 1. The Tetrahymena ...