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Spatiotemporal Identification of Potential Tsunami Vertical Evacuation Sites: A Case Study of Shizuoka City, Japan

Introduction: The city of Shizuoka directly faces the Nankai Trough (known for its tsunamigenic history), and is facing a potential tsunami threat. In this setting vertical evacuation can be of great significance in reducing loss of life. Methods: We apply a GIS based method in order to identify sites that could be utilized for vertical evacuation within the existing building stock ...

Constructing the Indicators of Assessing Human Vulnerability to Industrial Chemical Accidents: A Consensus-based Fuzzy Delphi and Fuzzy AHP Approach

Introduction: Industrial chemical accidents have been increased in developing countries. Assessing the human vulnerability in the residents of industrial areas is necessary for reducing the injuries and causalities of chemical hazards. The aim of this study was to explore the key indicators for the assessment of human vulnerability in the residents living near chemical ...

The Life Process of Children Who Survived the Manjil Earthquake: A Decaying or Renewing Process

Introduction: Among earthquake survivors, children are more vulnerable than other age groups due to their exposure to harrowing scenes of devastation as well as their drastically new living situations that result from an earthquake disaster. The life process of children survivors undergoes many different changes that are affected by a wide range of factors. Understanding the life ...

Spatial Determinants of Ebola Virus Disease Risk for the West African Epidemic

Introduction: Although many studies have investigated the probability of Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks while other studies have simulated the size and speed of EVD outbreaks, few have investigated the environmental and population-level predictors of Ebola transmission once an outbreak is underway. Identifying strong predictors of transmission could help guide and target ...

Towards Providing Solutions to the Air Quality Crisis in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area: Carbon Sequestration by Succulent Species in Green Roofs

INTRODUCTION: In the first months of 2016, the Mexico City Metropolitan Area experienced the worst air pollution crisis in the last decade, prompting drastic short-term solutions by the Mexico City Government and neighboring States. In order to help further the search for long-term sustainable solutions, we felt obliged to immediately release the results of our research regarding ...

The Development of a Veterans Health Administration Emergency Management Research Agenda

Introduction: The Veterans Health Administration (VHA), the largest integrated healthcare delivery system in the United States, is charged with ensuring timely access to high-quality care for veterans during disasters, and supporting national, state, local, and tribal emergency management and homeland security efforts. In 2008, the VHA Office of Public Health (OPH) sponsored the ...

Vaccine Hesitancy: In Search of the Risk Communication Comfort Zone

Introduction: This paper reports the findings of a national online survey to parents of children aged 5 and younger. The objectives of the study were to assess parental understanding of childhood immunizations, identify sources of information that they trust for vaccine-related content, assess where parents with young children stand on the key issues in the public debate about ...

The Demand for Disaster Microinsurance for Small Businesses in Urban Slums: The Results of Surveys in Three Indian Cities

Background: Small informal businesses make up the core markets for many poor urban communities, providing essential goods, services, and livelihoods. Many of these communities and businesses exist in hazardous locations. In most cases, these business owners do not have access to proper coping mechanisms including risk transfer and lack resilience to shocks. Access to risk-transfer ...

Analytical and Clinical Validity Study of FirstStepDx PLUS: A Chromosomal Microarray Optimized for Patients with Neurodevelopmental Conditions

Introduction: Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) is recognized as the first-tier test in the genetic evaluation of children with developmental delays, intellectual disabilities, congenital anomalies and autism spectrum disorders of unknown etiology. Array Design: To optimize detection of clinically relevant copy number variants associated with these conditions, we designed a ...

The Current State and Problems of Radiation Risk Communication: Based on the Results of a 2012 Whole Village Survey

Purpose: The entire village of Iitate was contaminated by radioactive material from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant; even today, the residents remain evacuated. For the villagers, risk communication is an important element of recovery and maintaining health. This analysis focuses on the problem of radiation, presents results from a questionnaire of villagers, and examines ...

[OBK-17-0008] Does Zika Virus Cause Microcephaly - Applying the Bradford Hill Viewpoints

Introduction: Zika virus has been documented since 1952, but been associated with mild, self-limiting disease. Zika virus is classified as an arbovirus from a family of Flaviviridae and primarily spread by Aedes Aegypti mosquitos. However, in a large outbreak in Brazil in 2015, Zika virus has been associated with microcephaly. Methods: In this review we applied the Bradford-Hill ...

The Most Effective Methods for Delivering Severe Weather Early Warnings to Fishermen on Lake Victoria

Introduction: It is estimated that five thousand people die on Lake Victoria every year by drowning which is triggered by severe weather hazards like lightning. Objectives: In order to improve predictability of severe weather conditions on Lake Victoria, there is need to deliver timely and effective Severe Weather Early Warning Systems (SWEWS) to those at risk. On Lake Victoria, ...

Women’s Challenges and Capabilities in Disasters: A Case Report of the Twin Earthquakes of Eastern Azerbaijan, Iran

Introduction: The twin earthquakes of eastern Azerbaijan induced considerable devastations of many villages and cities. About 70% of all victims were women and children. The present case report was aimed at describing the lessons learnt from both capabilities and challenges of girls and women after the twin earthquakes of eastern Azerbaijan. Methods: A qualitative approach using ...

First Report of the East-Central South African Genotype of Chikungunya Virus in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arbovirus that causes an acute febrile syndrome with a severe and debilitating arthralgia. In Brazil, the Asian and East-Central South African (ECSA) genotypes are circulating in the north and northeast of the country, respectively. In 2015, the first autochthonous cases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were reported but until now the ...

Health Consequences of Typhoon Haiyan in the Eastern Visayas Region Using a Syndromic Surveillance Database

Introduction: Typhoon Haiyan was the strongest storm recorded in Philippine history. Surveillance in Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters (SPEED) was activated during the typhoon response. This study analyzes the health impact of different diseases during different timeframes post-disaster during Typhoon Haiyan in 2013 using a syndromic surveillance database. Methods: SPEED ...

Characterization of Clostridium Baratii Type F Strains Responsible for an Outbreak of Botulism Linked to Beef Meat Consumption in France

Introduction: A second botulism outbreak due to Clostridium baratii occurred in France in August 2015 and included three patients who had their meal in a restaurant the same day. We report the characterization of C. baratii isolates including whole genome sequencing (WGS). Methods: Four C. baratii isolates collected in August 2015 from the outbreak 2 were analysed for toxin ...

Rural Women’s Experience of Living and Giving Birth in Relief Camps in Pakistan

Background: Women are more vulnerable than men in the same natural disaster setting. Preexisting gender inequality, socio-cultural community dynamics and poverty puts women at significant risk of mortality. Pregnant women are particularly vulnerable because of their limited or no access to prenatal and obstetric care during any disaster or humanitarian emergency setting. Methods: ...