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High-throughput adaptive sampling for whole-slide histopathology image analysis (HASHI) via convolutional neural networks: Application to invasive breast cancer detection

Precise detection of invasive cancer on whole-slide images (WSI) is a critical first step in digital pathology tasks of diagnosis and grading. Convolutional neural network (CNN) is the most popular representation learning method for computer vision tasks, which have been successfully applied in digital pathology, including tumor and mitosis detection. However, CNNs are typically...

A thirty year, fine-scale, characterization of area burned in Canadian forests shows evidence of regionally increasing trends in the last decade

Fire as a dominant disturbance has profound implications on the terrestrial carbon cycle. We present the first ever multi-decadal, spatially-explicit, 30 meter assessment of fire regimes across the forested ecoregions of Canada at an annual time-step. From 1985 to 2015, 51 Mha burned, impacting over 6.5% of forested ecosystems. Mean annual area burned was 1,651,818 ha and varied...

Perceptions of community safety and social activity participation among youth in South Africa

Background Crime and violence causes massive disruptions to the health, survival and development of populations. In South Africa, incredibly high rates of crime and violence are noted. The country also has a very large youth population whose health, survival and development are key to economic growth. Among other efforts to encourage healthy youth development and the promotion of...

The ecology of the Drosophila-yeast mutualism in wineries

The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is preferentially found on fermenting fruits. The yeasts that dominate the microbial communities of these substrates are the primary food source for developing D. melanogaster larvae, and adult flies manifest a strong olfactory system-mediated attraction for the volatile compounds produced by these yeasts during fermentation. Although most...

Ready for change: Oscillatory mechanisms of proactive motor control

Proactive motor control is a preparatory mechanism facilitating upcoming action inhibition or adaptation. Previous studies investigating proactive motor control mostly focused on response inhibition, as in the classical go-nogo or stop-signal tasks. However, everyday life rarely calls for the complete suppression of actions without subsequent behavioral adjustment. Therefore, we...

Photocatalytic disinfection of surfaces with copper doped Ti02 nanotube coatings illuminated by ceiling mounted fluorescent light

High economic burden is associated with foodborne illnesses. Different disinfection methods are therefore employed in food processing industry; such as use of ultraviolet light or usage of surfaces with copper-containing alloys. However, all the disinfection methods currently in use have some shortcomings. In this work we show that copper doped TiO2 nanotubes deposited on...

Survival in patients on hemodialysis: Effect of gender according to body mass index and creatinine

Background The association of a higher body mass index (BMI) with better survival is a well-known “obesity paradox” in patients on hemodialysis (HD). However, men and women have different body compositions, which could impact the effect of BMI on mortality. We investigated the effect of gender on the obesity-mortality relationship in Korean patients on HD. Methods This study...

Children with type 1 diabetes who experienced a honeymoon phase had significantly lower LDL cholesterol 5 years after diagnosis

Importance Landmark studies showed that partial clinical remission in new-onset type 1 diabetes is associated with reduced prevalence of long-term complications, but early clinical indicators of this favorable outcome are poorly characterized. Aim To determine if there were any differences in lipid parameters, especially LDL-cholesterol, between remitters and non-remitters 4 to 5...

Personality differentially affects individual mate choice decisions in female and male Western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis)

Consistent individual differences in behavioral tendencies (animal personality) can affect individual mate choice decisions. We asked whether personality traits affect male and female mate choice decisions similarly and whether potential personality effects are consistent across different mate choice situations. Using western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) as our study organism...

An overview of technical considerations when using quantitative real-time PCR analysis of gene expression in human exercise research

Gene expression analysis by quantitative PCR in skeletal muscle is routine in exercise studies. The reproducibility and reliability of the data fundamentally depend on how the experiments are performed and interpreted. Despite the popularity of the assay, there is a considerable variation in experimental protocols and data analyses from different laboratories, and there is a lack...

Evaluating verbal learning and memory in patients with an at-risk mental state or first episode psychosis using structural equation modelling

Background Verbal learning and memory are impaired not only in patients with a first episode of psychosis (FEP) but also–to a lower extent–in those with an at-risk mental state for psychosis (ARMS). However, little is known about the specific nature of these impairments. Hence, we aimed to study learning and memory processes in ARMS and FEP patients by making use of structural...

Quantitative evaluation of variation in defoliation traits among sugarcane genotypes

Development of easily defoliating sugarcane varieties is urgently needed to facilitate efficient mechanical harvesting, reduce production costs, and increase sugar yield in China. In order to quantify the defoliation characteristics of sugarcane, we investigated eight traits in two field experiments with a range of sugarcane varieties at maturity. The length (LSR) and angle (ASR...

Identification of candidate genes for gelatinization temperature, gel consistency and pericarp color by GWAS in rice based on SLAF-sequencing

Rice is an important cereal in the world. The study of the genetic basis of important agronomic traits in rice landraces and identification of genes will facilitate the breed improvement. Gelatinization temperature (GT), gel consistency (GC) and pericarp color (PC) are important indices of rice cooking and eating quality evaluation and potential nutritional importance, which...

Shilling attack detection for recommender systems based on credibility of group users and rating time series

Recommender systems are vulnerable to shilling attacks. Forged user-generated content data, such as user ratings and reviews, are used by attackers to manipulate recommendation rankings. Shilling attack detection in recommender systems is of great significance to maintain the fairness and sustainability of recommender systems. The current studies have problems in terms of the...

Diffusion tensor MRI of the healthy brachial plexus

Introduction Diffusion Tensor MRI (DT-MRI) is a promising tool for the evaluation of brachial plexus pathology. Therefore, we introduce and evaluate a fast DT-MRI protocol (8min33s scanning with 5–10 min postprocessing time) for the brachial plexus. Materials and methods Thirty healthy volunteers within three age-groups (18–35, 36–55, and > 56) received DT-MRI of the brachial...

Exploring the link between environmental pollution and economic growth in EU-28 countries: Is there an environmental Kuznets curve?

This study examines the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis (EKC), considering the primary energy consumption among other country-specific variables, for a panel of the EU-28 countries during the period 1990–2014. By estimating pooled OLS regressions with Driscoll-Kraay standard errors in order to account for cross-sectional dependence, the results confirm the EKC hypothesis...

SpTransformer proteins from the purple sea urchin opsonize bacteria, augment phagocytosis, and retard bacterial growth

The purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, has a complex and robust immune system that is mediated by a number of multi-gene families including the SpTransformer (SpTrf) gene family (formerly Sp185/333). In response to immune challenge from bacteria and various pathogen-associated molecular patterns, the SpTrf genes are up-regulated in sea urchin phagocytes and express...

Combining gray matter volume in the cuneus and the cuneus-prefrontal connectivity may predict early relapse in abstinent alcohol-dependent patients

Background Developing more effective strategies to prevent relapse remains one of the major challenges of treating substance dependence. Previous studies have identified brain abnormalities in abstinent alcoholics. However, whether these persistent brain deficits in abstinence could predict early relapse to alcohol use has not been well established. This study aimed to identify...

A Chinese version of the Language Screening Test (CLAST) for early-stage stroke patients

There is a severe lack of aphasia screening tools for bedside use in Chinese. A number of aphasia assessment tools have recently been developed abroad, but some of these scales were not suitable for patients with acute stroke. The Language Screening Test (which includes two parallel versions [a/b]) in French has been proven to be an effective and time-saving aphasia screening...

Proteomic analysis of watery saliva secreted by white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera

The white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera, is a phloem sap feeder that secretes watery and gelling saliva during feeding. In this study, we identified the major proteins in watery saliva of S. furcifera by shotgun LC-MS/MS analysis combined with transcriptomic analysis. A total of 161 proteins were identified, which were divided into 8 function categories, including...