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Spatial and temporal variation of nitrogen dioxide measurement in the Middle East within 2005–2014

The present study, aims to assess the spatial and temporal variation of NO2 measurement over the Middle East region within 2005–2014. For this purpose, satellite-based data of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) were implemented to measure the NO2 concentrations. The results reveal an average increase of NO2 emission in the Middle East during recent decade. Therefore, the results ...

The application of satellite-based model and bi-stable ecosystem balance concept to monitor desertification in arid lands, a case study of Sinai Peninsula

Desertification is responsible for depleting natural resources in arid lands, which is globally happening in an alarming rate. It is considered as the major environmental threat that affects about 40% of the world dry lands, which are populated by approximately one billion humans. In this paper the main objective is to discuss the recent and past research in monitoring and ...

Are Quality-Adjusted Life Years a Good Proxy Measure of Individual Capabilities?

Background There is a debate in the health economics literature concerning the most appropriate way of applying Amartya Sen’s capability approach in economic evaluation studies. Some suggest that quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) alone are adequate while others argue that this approach is too narrow and that direct measures of capability wellbeing provide a more extensive ...

Genotype × site × silviculture interactions in radiata pine: knowledge, working hypotheses and pointers for research§

Background Favourable interactions between genotype, site and silviculture are desired for growing radiata pine, site and silviculture being two components of environment. Our challenge is to characterise the interactions so as to exploit them to advantage. Four classes of interaction are involved: three first-order interactions between pairs of factors; and one second-order ...

Comparison between meteorological data from the New Zealand National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) and data from independent meteorological stations

Background Hybrid eco-physiological/mensurational models of forest production generally require monthly meteorological estimates at local points in the landscape as inputs. Where to obtain these estimates and how best to localise them are important questions for modellers. Data collected from nine independent meteorological stations were compared with estimates from the nearest ...

Development of Passive Film and Enhancement of Corrosion Protection of Mild Steel Exposed in Hydrochloric Acid due to the Adsorption of Water Dispersed 4-[(E)-(3,4-Dihydroxybenzylidene)amino]-6-Methyl-3-Mercapto-1,2,4-Triazin-5(4H)-one(DHMMT)

Corrosion inhibition activity of 4-[(E)-(3,4-Dihydroxybenzylidene)amino]-6-methyl-3-mercapto-1,2,4-triazin-5(4H)-one (DHMMT), a triazine-based Schiff base, for the corrosion of mild steel in HCl has been investigated by weight loss and electrochemical methods. Effect of inhibitor concentration, immersion time, acid concentration and temperature on inhibition efficiency has been ...

Image retrieval by information fusion based on scalable vocabulary tree and robust Hausdorff distance

In recent years, Scalable Vocabulary Tree (SVT) has been shown to be effective in image retrieval. However, for general images where the foreground is the object to be recognized while the background is cluttered, the performance of the current SVT framework is restricted. In this paper, a new image retrieval framework that incorporates a robust distance metric and information ...

Iterative detection for frequency-asynchronous distributed Alamouti-coded (FADAC) OFDM

We propose a near intercarrier interference (ICI)-free and very low complexity iterative detector for frequency-asynchronous distributed Alamouti-coded (FADAC) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). In the previous cancelation schemes, the entire subcarrier signals from one transmit (TX) antenna are estimated and canceled in the received signal from the other TX antenna ...

Spectral reconstruction of signals from periodic nonuniform subsampling based on a Nyquist folding scheme

Periodic nonuniform sampling occurs in many applications, and the Nyquist folding receiver (NYFR) is an efficient, low complexity, and broadband spectrum sensing architecture. In this paper, we first derive that the radio frequency (RF) sample clock function of NYFR is periodic nonuniform. Then, the classical results of periodic nonuniform sampling are applied to NYFR. We extend ...

Identification of the aroma compounds in Vitex doniana sweet: free and bound odorants

Background Most often, the glycosidically-bound aroma compounds are released during industrial processing or pre-treatment of fruits. This usually introduces modification to the aroma notes of such fruits. Therefore, there is the need to understand the contribution of these bound aroma compounds to the overall aroma of a given fruit. In recent years research studies have reported ...

Nontargeted homologue series extraction from hyphenated high resolution mass spectrometry data

Background A large proportion of polar anthropogenic compounds routinely released into the environment comprises homologue series, i.e., sets of chemicals differing in a repeating chemical unit. Using analytical techniques such as liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS), these compounds are readily measurable as signal sets with characteristic ...

Efficient Bayesian compressed sensing-based channel estimation techniques for massive MIMO-OFDM systems

Efficient and highly accurate channel state information (CSI) at the base station (BS) is essential to achieve the potential benefits of massive multiple input multiple output (MIMO) systems. However, the achievable accuracy that is attainable is limited in practice due to the problem of pilot contamination. It has recently been shown that compressed sensing (CS) techniques can ...

Laser spectroscopy with an electrostatic ConeTrap

A compact electrostatic trap has been designed and installed as part of the recent upgrades to the IGISOL IV facility. The ConeTrap provides an in vacuo optical pumping site for low energy (800 eV) ionic ensembles available for interaction periods of 10-100 ms. At present, 6.7(3) % of injected mass A=98 ions can be trapped, stored for 5 ms, extracted and transported to a laser-ion ...

Comparing proximal remote sensing and orbital images to estimate the total suspended matter in inland water

The main purpose of this work was to improve the remote sensing reflectance (R rs ) applications to estimate the total suspended matter (TSM) concentrations, since several studies using R rs retrieved from atmospherically corrected images did not match with in situ radiometric measurements. The goal was achieved by comparing two R rs datasets: one from atmospherically corrected ...

Cardiovascular Effects of Stimulant and Non-Stimulant Medication for Children and Adolescents with ADHD: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Trials of Methylphenidate, Amphetamines and Atomoxetine

Background Many children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are treated with stimulant and non-stimulant medication. ADHD medication may be associated with cardiovascular effects. It is important to identify whether mean group effects translate into clinically relevant increases for some individual patients, and/or increase the risk for serious ...

Reversible audio data hiding algorithm using noncausal prediction of alterable orders

This paper presents a reversible data hiding scheme for digital audio by using noncausal prediction of alterable orders. Firstly, the samples in a host signal are divided into the cross and the dot sets. Then, each sample in a set is estimated by using the past P samples and the future Q samples as prediction context. The order P + Q and the prediction coefficients are computed by ...

The Interplay Between Landscape Structure and Biotic Interactions

Landscape structure and biotic interactions are closely linked. We identify five aspects of landscape structure that contribute to the co-occurrence of species and restrict or enable different types of biotic interactions: patch size and habitat amount, isolation of patches, barriers to dispersal and movement, persistence of landscape structure, and landscape complexity. In ...

“All in the family?” The Relationship Between Sibling Offending and Offending Risk

Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate the associations between criminality of family members and individual offending. The main focus is on investigating the extent to which criminal offending by siblings is associated with individual offending, as well as the extent to which parental and grandparental offending accounts for this relationship. Methods Using official ...

Calcipotriol Plus Betamethasone Dipropionate Aerosol Foam in Patients with Moderate-to-Severe Psoriasis: Sub-Group Analysis of the PSO-ABLE Study

Background Fixed-combination calcipotriol 50 μg/g plus betamethasone 0.5 mg/g (Cal/BD) aerosol foam is a new topical treatment for psoriasis. Although moderate-to-severe psoriasis is typically treated with systemic/biologic therapies, a topical treatment that is efficacious in these patients may be a significant cost-saving alternative to systemic therapy. Objective The objective ...

Burning Issues: Cremation and Incineration in Modern India

The cremation of human bodies and the incineration of urban waste provide two interrelated examples of technologies using the destructive power of fire that “travelled” in both directions between India and the West in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Rather than granting an automatic ascendency to western ways of burning the dead or disposing of urban rubbish, these case ...