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Evaluation of Rubus genetic resources on their resistance to cane disease

Raspberry cane disease, caused by a complex of fungi, is amongst the most devastating problems for raspberry production. Using resistant or highly tolerant genotypes is a promising strategy. However, until now, cultivars with good field resistance for German fruit growers as well as the primary causal pathogens of cane disease present in the eastern part of Germany, Saxony state...

Losing cichlid fish biodiversity: genetic and morphological homogenization of tilapia following colonization by introduced species

Among the many negative impacts of invasive species, hybridization with indigenous species has increasingly become recognized as a major issue. However, relatively few studies have characterized the phenotypic outcomes of hybridization following biological invasions. Here we investigate the genetic and morphological consequences of stocking invasive tilapia species in two water...

Above the Veil: Revisiting the Classicism of W. E. B. Du Bois

Studies of W. E. B. Du Bois typically emphasize his shift from an elitist devotion to European classics to a more radical promotion of African culture. These essays move beyond this simple dichotomy. We aim to demonstrate that throughout his life, Du Bois used classical ideas to challenge white Americans’ exclusive claims to power, even as he recognized and critiqued the role of...

Genome dimensions control biological and toxicological functions; myth or reality?

The multidimensional genome offers a new perspective to understand molecular mechanisms of genotoxicity and provide deeper knowledge of how genome organization and reorganization in dimensions can alter cell sensitivity, tolerance, resistance, or toxicity to drugs, whether drugs per se can influence the 3D architecture of the genome directly or indirectly through transcriptional...

Structured propositions and trivial composition

Structured propositions are often invoked to explain why intensionally equivalent sentences do not substitute salva veritate into attitude ascriptions. As the semantics is standardly developed—for example, in Salmon (Frege’s puzzle. Ridgeview, Atascadero, CA, 1986), Soames (Philos Top 15(1):47–87, 1987) and King (Noûs 29(4):516–535, 1995), the semantic value of a complex...

Graft-transmissible agents in oriental persimmons (Diospyros kaki L) in the southeastern USA.

The “Sudden Death Syndrome” of oriental persimmon (Diospyros kaki L) described from the southeastern USA almost 30 years ago has been associated with infection by Xylella fastidiosa using PCR. The association between symptoms and the etiological agent is not absolute. Moreover, several viroids (Apple fruit crinkle viroid [AFCVd], Persimmon viroid [PEVd], Persimmon viroid 2 [PeVd...

The peer review game: an agent-based model of scientists facing resource constraints and institutional pressures

This paper looks at peer review as a cooperation dilemma through a game-theory framework. We built an agent-based model to estimate how much the quality of peer review is influenced by different resource allocation strategies followed by scientists dealing with multiple tasks, i.e., publishing and reviewing. We assumed that scientists were sensitive to acceptance or rejection of...

Reputation or peer review? The role of outliers

We present an agent-based model of paper publication and consumption that allows to study the effect of two different evaluation mechanisms, peer review and reputation, on the quality of the manuscripts accessed by a scientific community. The model was empirically calibrated on two data sets, mono- and multi-disciplinary. Our results point out that disciplinary settings differ in...

Detection of infectious Brome mosaic virus in irrigation ditches and draining strands in Poland

Environmental waters, e.g. rivers, lakes and irrigation water, are a good source of many plant viruses. The pathogens can infect plants getting through damaged root hairs or small wounds that appear during plant growth. First results demonstrated common incidence of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) in water samples collected from irrigation ditches and...

Towards an Account of Epistemic Luck for Necessary Truths

Modal epistemologists parse modal conditions on knowledge in terms of metaphysical possibilities or ways the world might have been. This is problematic. Understanding modal conditions on knowledge this way has made modal epistemology, as currently worked out, unable to account for epistemic luck in the case of necessary truths, and unable to characterise widely discussed issues...

Managing geese with recreational hunters?

As many goose populations across the northern Hemisphere continue to rise, the role of hunters to manage these populations is increasingly being considered. We studied recreational goose hunters in Denmark to assess their behavioural and motivational characteristics, willingness to alter their hunting effort, as well as their ability to act as stewards of a rapidly increasing...

Mowing may bring about vegetation change, but its effect is strongly modified by hydrological factors

We assessed the effect of long-term (11 years) mowing with a hand scythe on the distributions of plant species and species turnover within meadow communities dominated by Carex acutiformis and C. acuta in a small lowland river valley subjected to annual flooding. We hypothesized that mowing would trigger the process of species exchange toward multispecies communities according to...

Design considerations of high RAP-content asphalt produced at reduced temperatures

In many countries recycling of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) for road surface layers is limited to a maximum of 10–30%. This is due to technical limitation of common asphalt plant but also to specifications that are still restrictive when it comes to increasing RAP in surface courses. The mistrust in this practice is mainly related to uncertainty in performance of these mixes...

Attitudes Towards the Donation of Human Embryos for Stem Cell Research Among Chinese IVF Patients and Students

Bioethical debates on the use of human embryos and oocytes for stem cell research have often been criticized for the lack of empirical insights into the perceptions and experiences of the women and couples who are asked to donate these tissues in the IVF clinic. Empirical studies that have investigated the attitudes of IVF patients and citizens on the (potential) donation of...

From Computer Metaphor to Computational Modeling: The Evolution of Computationalism

In this paper, I argue that computationalism is a progressive research tradition. Its metaphysical assumptions are that nervous systems are computational, and that information processing is necessary for cognition to occur. First, the primary reasons why information processing should explain cognition are reviewed. Then I argue that early formulations of these reasons are...

Molecular mechanism of SRP-dependent light-harvesting protein transport to the thylakoid membrane in plants

The light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding proteins (LHCP) belong to a large family of membrane proteins. They form the antenna complexes of photosystem I and II and function in light absorption and transfer of the excitation energy to the photosystems. As nuclear-encoded proteins, the LHCPs are imported into the chloroplast and further targeted to their final destination—the...

Food purchase patterns indicative of household food access insecurity, children’s dietary diversity and intake, and nutritional status using a newly developed and validated tool in the Peruvian Amazon

Food security, defined as the capacity to acquire preferred food at all times, can manifest in many dimensions. Following a mixed methods approach used in India and Burkina Faso, we developed a 58-item experience-based measure in the Peruvian Amazon, based on investigator observations, relevant literature, and pre-testing with community field workers. The tool encompasses seven...