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Oxidative discolouration in whole-head and cut lettuce: biochemical and environmental influences on a complex phenotype and potential breeding strategies to improve shelf-life

Lettuce discolouration is a key post-harvest trait. The major enzyme controlling oxidative discolouration has long been considered to be polyphenol oxidase (PPO) however, levels of PPO and subsequent development of discolouration symptoms have not always correlated. The predominance of a latent state of the enzyme in plant tissues combined with substrate activation and ...

Measurement of the flexibility of wet cellulose fibres using atomic force microscopy

Flexibility and modulus of elasticity data for two types of wet cellulose fibres using a direct force–displacement method by means of AFM are reported for never dried wet fibres immersed in water. The flexibilities for the bleached softwood kraft pulp (BSW) fibres are in the range of 4–38 × 1012 N−1 m−2 while the flexibilities for the thermomechanical pulp (TMP) fibres are about ...

Identifying high-yield low-emission pathways for the cereal production in South Asia

Increasing agricultural production to meet the growing demand for food whilst reducing agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is the major challenge under the changing climate. To develop long-term policies that address these challenges, strategies are needed to identify high-yield low-emission pathways for particular agricultural production systems. In this paper, we used ...

Zero-tillage is a proven technology for sustainable wheat intensification in the Eastern Indo-Gangetic Plains: what determines farmer awareness and adoption?

In India, there is increasing recognition among policy-makers of the largely untapped potential of the Eastern Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) for meeting state- and national-level food needs. Zero-tillage (ZT) is a proven technology for enhancing wheat productivity and, hence, food security in the IGP, while reducing production costs – a ‘win-win’ scenario that should support rapid ...

Exploiting the ZIP4 homologue within the wheat Ph1 locus has identified two lines exhibiting homoeologous crossover in wheat-wild relative hybrids

Despite possessing related ancestral genomes, hexaploid wheat behaves as a diploid during meiosis. The wheat Ph1 locus promotes accurate synapsis and crossover of homologous chromosomes. Interspecific hybrids between wheat and wild relatives are exploited by breeders to introgress important traits from wild relatives into wheat, although in hybrids between hexaploid wheat and wild ...

Validation of the CME Geomagnetic Forecast Alerts Under the COMESEP Alert System

Under the European Union 7th Framework Programme (EU FP7) project Coronal Mass Ejections and Solar Energetic Particles (COMESEP, http://comesep.aeronomy.be ), an automated space weather alert system has been developed to forecast solar energetic particles (SEP) and coronal mass ejection (CME) risk levels at Earth. The COMESEP alert system uses the automated detection tool called ...

The Moral Entrepreneur: A New Component of Ethical Leadership

Ethical leadership has become a popular subject of empirical research in recent years. Most studies follow Brown et al.’s (Organ Behav Hum Decis Process, 97:117–134, 2005) definition of ethical leadership, which consists of two components: the moral person and the moral manager. In this paper, I argue for a third relevant component: i.e., the moral entrepreneur who creates a new ...

Population-level coordination of pigment response in individual cyanobacterial cells under altered nitrogen levels

Cyanobacterial phycobilisome (PBS) pigment-protein complexes harvest light and transfer the energy to reaction centers. Previous ensemble studies have shown that cyanobacteria respond to changes in nutrient availability by modifying the structure of PBS complexes, but this process has not been visualized for individual pigments at the single-cell level due to spectral overlap. We ...

Why the World Needs an International Cyberwar Convention

States’ capacity for using modern information and communication technology to inflict grave harm on enemies has been amply demonstrated in recent years, with many countries reporting large-scale cyberattacks against their military defense systems, water supply, and other critical infrastructure. Currently, no agreed-upon international rules or norms exist to govern international ...

Mechanical fabrication of high-strength and redispersible wood nanofibers from unbleached groundwood pulp

In the past, the direct production of lignin-containing nanofibers from wood materials has been very limited, and nanoscale fibers (nanocelluloses) have been mainly isolated from chemically delignified, bleached cellulose pulp. In this study, we have introduced a newly adapted, heat-intensified disc nanogrinding process for the enhanced nanofibrillation of wood nanofibers (WNF) ...

Spirituality, spiritual sensibility and human growth

While notions of spirituality, spiritual experience and spiritual development seem much neglected in the literature of modern analytical philosophy, such terminology continues to be current in both common usage and religious contexts. This author has previously taken issue with some recent attempts to develop (educational and other professional) conceptions of spirituality and ...

Glycerol steam reforming over calcium deficient hydroxyapatite supported nickel catalysts

This paper presents reports on the glycerol steam reforming reaction. The studies were performed over four nickel catalysts with different metal loading (up to 10 wt%) supported on calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (DHAp). The support was synthetized by the microwave assisted hydrothermal method. The steam reforming reaction was performed under atmospheric pressure in the 650–800 °C ...

Synthesis and olefin homo- and copolymerization behavior of new vanadium complexes bearing [OSSO]-type ligands

Novel vanadium complexes bearing [OSSO]-type ligands having two phenolato units linked through the –CH2S(CH2)4SCH2– (1V) or –CH2S(CH2)2SCH2– (2V) bridge are synthesized with good yields by reacting a deprotonated ligand with VCl4. They are then used in ethylene (co)polymerization after activation with EtAlCl2 and Et2AlCl. In the presence of EtAlCl2, both complexes promote ethylene ...

Historic nitrogen deposition determines future climate change effects on nitrogen retention in temperate forests

Nitrogen (N) cycle processes in terrestrial ecosystems are highly sensitive to temperature and soil moisture variations. Thus, future climate change may affect the degree to which N deposited from the atmosphere will be retained in forest ecosystems. We evaluated the effect of future changes in climate and N deposition on ecosystem N cycling using the model LandscapeDNDC forced ...

Affect, perceptual experience, and disclosure

A prominent number of contemporary theories of emotional experience—understood as occurrent, phenomenally conscious episodes of emotions with an affective character that are evaluatively directed towards particular objects or states of affairs—are motivated by the claim that phenomenally conscious affective experience, when appropriate, grants us epistemic access not merely to ...

Glyphosate dose modulates the uptake of inorganic phosphate by freshwater cyanobacteria

The usefulness of glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] as a source of nutritive phosphorus for species of halophilic cyanobacteria has been postulated for years. Our results indicate a stimulating effect of glyphosate on the growth of four out of five examined freshwater species, Anabaena variabilis (CCALA 007), Chroococcus minutus (CCALA 055), Fischerella cf. maior (CCALA 067) ...