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GNS4, a novel allele of DWARF11, regulates grain number and grain size in a high-yield rice variety

Background Rice plays an extremely important role in food safety because it feeds more than half of the world’s population. Rice grain yield depends on biomass and the harvest index. An important strategy to break through the rice grain yield ceiling is to increase the biological yield. Therefore, genes associated with organ size are important targets for rice breeding. Results We ...

Updating the elite rice variety Kongyu 131 by improving the Gn1a locus

Background Kongyu 131 is an elite japonica rice variety of Heilongjiang Province, China. It has the characteristics of early maturity, superior quality, high yield, cold tolerance and wide adaptability. However, there is potential to improve the yield of Kongyu 131 because of the relatively few grains per panicle compared with other varieties. Hence, we rebuilt the genome of Kongyu ...

Same but different? Measurement invariance of the PIAAC motivation-to-learn scale across key socio-demographic groups

Background Data from the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) revealed that countries systematically differ in their respondents’ literacy, numeracy, and problem solving in technology-rich environments skills; skill levels also vary by gender, age, level of education or migration background. Similarly, systematic differences have been documented ...

Sugary Endosperm is Modulated by Starch Branching Enzyme IIa in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Background Starch biosynthesis is one of the most important pathways that determine both grain quality and yield in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Sugary endosperm, sugary-1 (sug-1), is a mutant trait for starch biosynthesis. Rice plants carrying sug-1 produce grains that accumulate water-soluble carbohydrates instead of starch, even after maturity. Although this trait enhances the ...

Chicago Classification of Esophageal Motility Disorders: Lessons Learned

Purpose of Review High-resolution manometry (HRM) is increasingly performed worldwide, to study esophageal motility. The Chicago classification is subsequently applied to interpret the manometric findings and facilitate a diagnosis of esophageal motility disorders. This review will discuss new insights regarding the diagnosis and management using the Chicago classification. Recent ...

New Genes Causing Hereditary Parkinson’s Disease or Parkinsonism

Purpose of Review This article reviews was to review genes where putative or confirmed pathogenic mutations causing Parkinson’s disease or Parkinsonism have been identified since 2012, and summarizes the clinical and pathological picture of the associated disease subtypes. Recent Findings Newly reported genes for dominant Parkinson’s disease are DNAJC13, CHCHD2, and TMEM230. ...

Combined Medication of Antiretroviral Drugs Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate, Emtricitabine, and Raltegravir Reduces Neural Progenitor Cell Proliferation In Vivo and In Vitro

The application of combination antiretroviral therapy has greatly reduced the death rate from AIDS. However, up to 50% of patients on combination antiretroviral therapy develop HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), which is associated with residual neuroinflammation and oxidative injury in the brain. Neural stem cells (NSCs) and progenitors play a vital role in repairing ...

Surgical Techniques to Optimize Early Urinary Continence Recovery Post Robot Assisted Radical Prostatectomy for Prostate Cancer

Purpose of Review A variety of different surgical techniques are thought to impact on urinary continence (UC) recovery in patients undergoing robot assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) for prostate cancer. Herein, we review current evidence and propose a composite evidence-based technique to optimize UC recovery after RARP. Recent Findings A literature search on studies reporting ...

Formation of Variously Shaped Gold Nanoparticles by Anabaena laxa

Anew aspect of this study is the biocatalysis ability of Anabaena laxa—fresh-water strain—which to date has not been studied with respect to the formation of gold nanoparticles. The results of our study have shown that A. laxa is able to form gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) at good yields within 24 h of incubation at all three tested concentrations (0.1, 0.5 and 1 mM) of hydrogen ...

A state-by-state comparison of middle school science standards on evolution in the United States

The focus of this study is a state-by-state comparison of middle school science standards on evolution in the United States. In 2009, Louise Mead and Anton Mates reviewed the high school science standards on evolution, giving each state a grade based on multiple factors including the number of times the word “evolution” is mentioned, the types of evolution covered, and the ...

Outcomes of preexisting diabetes mellitus in breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer

Purpose Preexisting diabetes is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in cancer. We examined the impact of incident cancer on the long-term outcomes of diabetes. Methods Using the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink, we identified three cohorts of diabetes patients subsequently diagnosed with breast, colorectal, or prostate cancer, each matched to ...

Security Techniques for the Electronic Health Records

The privacy of patients and the security of their information is the most imperative barrier to entry when considering the adoption of electronic health records in the healthcare industry. Considering current legal regulations, this review seeks to analyze and discuss prominent security techniques for healthcare organizations seeking to adopt a secure electronic health records ...

Direct Oral Anticoagulants Use in Antiphospholipid Syndrome: Are These Drugs an Effective and Safe Alternative to Warfarin? A Systematic Review of the Literature: Comment

We respond to comments by Dufrost et al. about the RAPS trial, in particular, showing that the trial did achieve its target sample size; pointing out that thrombin potential is not synonymous with overall thrombin generation; confirming that overall, no increased thrombotic risk was evident comparing rivaroxaban with warfarin; and that high-risk patients (28% were triple positive, ...

Influence of Vacuum Impregnation with Different Substances on the Metabolic Heat Production and Sugar Metabolism of Spinach Leaves

Vacuum impregnation (VI) has been widely used as pre-treatment prior to, e.g., minimal processing, freezing, or drying of fruit and vegetables. Most of the investigations have focused on the applicability of VI to modify physicochemical, sensory, and nutritive characteristics. However, little attention has been paid to the metabolic consequences of impregnating different substances ...

Preparation and Enhanced Catalytic Hydrogenation Activity of Sb/Palygorskite (PAL) Nanoparticles

A Sb/palygorskite (PAL) composite was synthesized by a facile solvothermal process and applied in catalytic hydrogenation of p-nitrophenol for the first time. It was found that the Sb nanoparticles with the sizes of 2–5 nm were well dispersed on the fiber of PAL, while partial aggregated Sb nanoparticles with sizes smaller than 200 nm were also loaded on the PAL. The Sb/PAL ...

Treatment Outcome, Duration, and Costs: A Comparison of Performance Indicators Using Data from Eight Mental Health Care Providers in The Netherlands

Assessing performance of mental health services (MHS) providers merely by their outcomes is insufficient. Process factors, such as treatment cost or duration, should also be considered in a meaningful and thorough analysis of quality of care. The present study aims to examine various performance indicators based on treatment outcome and two process factors: duration and cost of ...

Effects of cognitive behavioural therapy for depression in heart failure patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effects of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) on depression, quality of life, hospitalisations and mortality in heart failure patients. The search strategy was developed for Ovid MEDLINE and modified accordingly to search the following bibliographic databases: PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CENTRAL and CINAHL. Databases ...