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GNS4, a novel allele of DWARF11, regulates grain number and grain size in a high-yield rice variety

Background Rice plays an extremely important role in food safety because it feeds more than half of the world’s population. Rice grain yield depends on biomass and the harvest index. An important strategy to break through the rice grain yield ceiling is to increase the biological yield. Therefore, genes associated with organ size are important targets for rice breeding. Results We ...

Implant decontamination with phosphoric acid during surgical peri-implantitis treatment: a RCT

Background Peri-implantitis is known as an infectious disease that affects the peri-implant soft and hard tissue. Today, scientific literature provides very little evidence for an effective intervention protocol for treatment of peri-implantitis. The aim of the present randomized controlled trial is to evaluate the microbiological and clinical effectiveness of phosphoric acid as a ...

Horizontally scalable probabilistic generalized suffix tree (PGST) based route prediction using map data and GPS traces

Route prediction is an essential requirement for many intelligent transport systems (ITS) services like VANETS, traffic congestion estimation, resource prediction in grid computing etc. This work focuses on building an end-to-end horizontally scalable route prediction application based on statistical modeling of user travel data. Probabilistic suffix tree (PST) is one of widely ...

Peri-implant biomechanical responses to standard, short-wide, and double mini implants replacing missing molar supporting hybrid ceramic or full-metal crowns under axial and off-axial loading: an in vitro study

Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical response of the peri-implant bone to standard, short-wide, and double mini implants replacing missing molar supporting either hybrid ceramic crowns (Lava Ultimate restorative) or full-metal crowns under two different loading conditions (axial and off-axial loading) using strain gauge analysis. Methods Three ...

Compared to what? Estimating the relative concentration of crime at places using systematic and other reviews

Background That crime is concentrated at a few places is well established by over 44 studies. This is true whether one examines addresses or street segments. Additionally, crime is concentrated among offenders and victims. Many physical, biological, and social phenomena are concentrated as well. This raises a question: is crime more or less concentrated at places than other ...

Updating the elite rice variety Kongyu 131 by improving the Gn1a locus

Background Kongyu 131 is an elite japonica rice variety of Heilongjiang Province, China. It has the characteristics of early maturity, superior quality, high yield, cold tolerance and wide adaptability. However, there is potential to improve the yield of Kongyu 131 because of the relatively few grains per panicle compared with other varieties. Hence, we rebuilt the genome of Kongyu ...

Effect of nonplastic silt content on undrained shear strength of sand–silt mixtures

To assess the behavior of sand–silt mixtures, strain-controlled monotonic triaxial tests were conducted on sand–silt mixtures of specimen size 71 mm in diameter and 142 mm in height at various relative densities but same isotropic effective confining pressure of 100 kPa. Concept of limiting fines content (LFC) was verified by these undrained monotonic triaxial tests. LFC was found ...

Dead standing pine trees in a boreal forest landscape in the Kalevala National Park, northern Fennoscandia: amount, population characteristics and spatial pattern

Background After their death, Scots pine trees can remain standing for decades and sometimes up to 200 years, forming long-lasting and ecologically important structures in boreal forest landscapes. Standing dead pines decay very slowly and with time develop into ‘kelo’ trees, which are characterized by hard wood with silvery-colored appearance. These kelo trees represent an ...

Whole-body vibration training improves balance control and sit-to-stand performance among middle-aged and older adults: a pilot randomized controlled trial

Background Aging is associated with decreased balance, which increases falling risk. The objective of the current study was to determine the feasibility and effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) training on knee extensor muscle power, limits of stability, and sit-to-stand performance among community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults in the United States. Methods A randomized ...

The diaspora of borders: Hindu-Sikh transnationals in the diaspora

This paper offers a set of nuanced narratives and a theoretically-informed report on what is the driving force and motivation behind the movement of Hindus and Sikhs from one continent to another (apart from their earlier movement out of the subcontinent to distant shores). What leads them to leave one diasporic location for another location? In this sense they are also ...

Non-timber forest products and their contribution to households income around Falgore Game Reserve in Kano, Nigeria

Introduction In the recent decades, there has been growing interest in the contribution of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) to livelihoods, development, and poverty alleviation among the rural populace. This has been prompted by the fact that communities living adjacent to forest reserves rely to a great extent on the NTFPs for their livelihoods, and therefore any effort to ...

Greening emerging IT technologies: techniques and practices

The tremendous increase in global industrial activity has resulted in high utilization of natural energy resources and increase in global warming over the last few decades. Meanwhile, computing has become a popular utility of modern human lifestyle. With the increased popularity of computing and IT services, the corresponding energy consumption of the IT industry has also increased ...

A new approach to semantic sustainability assessment: text mining via network analysis revealing transition patterns in German municipal climate action plans

Background Various monitoring approaches have shown that urban areas and their energy systems are major contributors to climate change. Corresponding observations have mostly been based on physical data. However, text data is an untapped source of information that can be analyzed by text mining methods. Taking the example of the German Energy Transition, an interpretation network ...

Injury, intense dust exposure, and chronic disease among survivors of the World Trade Center terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001

Background The World Trade Center attack of September 11, 2001 in New York City (9/11) exposed thousands of people to intense concentrations of hazardous materials that have resulted in reports of increased levels of asthma, heart disease, diabetes, and other chronic diseases along with psychological illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Few studies have ...

The influence of surface texture and wettability on initial bacterial adhesion on titanium and zirconium oxide dental implants

Background This study aims to investigate bacterial adhesion on different titanium and ceramic implant surfaces, to correlate these findings with surface roughness and surface hydrophobicity, and to define the predominant factor for bacterial adhesion for each material. Methods Zirconia and titanium specimens with different surface textures and wettability (5.0 mm in diameter, 1.0 ...

Same but different? Measurement invariance of the PIAAC motivation-to-learn scale across key socio-demographic groups

Background Data from the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) revealed that countries systematically differ in their respondents’ literacy, numeracy, and problem solving in technology-rich environments skills; skill levels also vary by gender, age, level of education or migration background. Similarly, systematic differences have been documented ...

Assessment of performance and parameter sensitivity of multicomponent geothermometry applied to a medium enthalpy geothermal system

The determination of reservoir temperatures represents a major task when exploring geothermal systems. Since the uncertainties of classical solute geothermometry are still preventing reliable reservoir temperature estimations, we assess the performance of classical geothermometers and multicomponent geothermometry by applying them to fluids composed from long-term batch-type ...

Cost of hospitalization for firearm injuries by firearm type, intent, and payer in the United States

Background Firearm injuries disproportionately affect young, male, non-White populations, causing substantial individual and societal burden. Annual costs for hospitalized firearm injuries have not been widely described, as most previous cost studies have focused on lifetime costs. We examined a nationally-representative database of hospitalizations in the US to estimate ...

Geometric optimal control and applications to aerospace

This article deals with applications of optimal control to aerospace problems with a focus on modern geometric optimal control tools and numerical continuation techniques. Geometric optimal control is a theory combining optimal control with various concepts of differential geometry. The ultimate objective is to derive optimal synthesis results for general classes of control ...

Sugary Endosperm is Modulated by Starch Branching Enzyme IIa in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Background Starch biosynthesis is one of the most important pathways that determine both grain quality and yield in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Sugary endosperm, sugary-1 (sug-1), is a mutant trait for starch biosynthesis. Rice plants carrying sug-1 produce grains that accumulate water-soluble carbohydrates instead of starch, even after maturity. Although this trait enhances the ...