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The Potential for Treatment Shortening With Higher Rifampicin Doses: Relating Drug Exposure to Treatment Response in Patients With Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis remains a huge public health problem and the prolonged treatment duration obstructs effective tuberculosis control. Higher rifampicin doses have been associated with better bactericidal activity, but optimal dosing is uncertain. This analysis aimed to characterize the relationship between rifampicin plasma exposure and treatment response over 6 months in a recent...

How Can Onchocerciasis Elimination in Africa Be Accelerated? Modeling the Impact of Increased Ivermectin Treatment Frequency and Complementary Vector Control

Great strides have been made toward onchocerciasis elimination by mass drug administration (MDA) of ivermectin. Focusing on MDA-eligible areas, we investigated where the elimination goal can be achieved by 2025 by continuation of current practice (annual MDA with ivermectin) and where intensification or additional vector control is required. We did not consider areas hypoendemic...

Outbreak of Severe Histoplasmosis Among Tunnel Workers—Dominican Republic, 2015

Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection associated with exposure to bat guano. An outbreak of an unknown severe febrile illness occurred among tunnel workers in the Dominican Republic, and resulted in several deaths. We conducted an investigation to confirm etiology and recommend control measures.

Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) POSITION STATEMENT: Why IDSA Did Not Endorse the Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines

IDSA did not endorse the 2016 Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines despite being represented in the working group that drafted the guidelines document. Leadership from the IDSA, the Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines, and the Society of Critical Care Medicine had numerous amicable discussions primarily regarding the bolded, rated guidelines recommendations. Our societies had...

Description of a Mass Poisoning in a Rural District in Mozambique: The First Documented Bongkrekic Acid Poisoning in Africa

On 9 January 2015, in a rural town in Mozambique, >230 persons became sick and 75 died of an illness linked to drinking pombe, a traditional alcoholic beverage.

Scaling Up Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention for Adolescents and Young Adult Men: A Modeling Analysis of Implementation and Impact in Selected Countries

The new World Health Organization and Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS strategic framework for voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) aims to increase VMMC coverage among males aged 10–29 years in priority settings to 90% by 2021. We use mathematical modeling to assess the likelihood that selected countries will achieve this objective, given their historical VMMC...

Providers’ Perceptions and Training Needs for Counseling Adolescents Undergoing Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision

The majority of individuals who seek voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) services in sub-Saharan Africa are adolescents (ages 10–19 years). However, adolescents who obtain VMMC services report receiving little information on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and care. In this study, we assessed the perceptions of VMMC facility managers and providers about...

Perceived Quality of In-Service Communication and Counseling Among Adolescents Undergoing Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision

Experience with providers shapes the quality of adolescent health services, including voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). This study examined the perceived quality of in-service communication and counseling during adolescent VMMC services.

Impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus on the Burden and Severity of Influenza Illness in Malawian Adults: A Prospective Cohort and Parallel Case-Control Study

The impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on influenza incidence and severity in adults in sub-Saharan Africa is unclear. Seasonal influenza vaccination is recommended for HIV-infected persons in developed settings but is rarely implemented in Africa.

No Clinical Benefit of Empirical Antimicrobial Therapy for Pediatric Diarrhea in a High-Usage, High-Resistance Setting

Pediatric diarrheal disease presents a major public health burden in low- to middle-income countries. The clinical benefits of empirical antimicrobial treatment for diarrhea are unclear in settings that lack reliable diagnostics and have high antimicrobial resistance (AMR).