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Oral Vancomycin Followed by Fecal Transplantation Versus Tapering Oral Vancomycin Treatment for Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection: An Open-Label, Randomized Controlled Trial

Background. Fecal transplantation (FT) is a promising treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), but its true effectiveness remains unknown. We compared 14 days of oral vancomycin followed by a single FT by enema with oral vancomycin taper (standard of care) in adult patients experiencing acute recurrence of CDI.

Natural History of Cryptosporidiosis in a Birth Cohort in Southern India

Background. Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of moderate to severe childhood diarrhea in resource-poor settings. Understanding the natural history of cryptosporidiosis and the correlates of protection are essential to develop effective and sustainable approaches to disease control and prevention.

Official American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Clinical Practice Guidelines: Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in Adults and Children

Background. Individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) may develop symptoms and signs of disease (tuberculosis disease) or may have no clinical evidence of disease (latent tuberculosis infection [LTBI]). Tuberculosis disease is a leading cause of infectious disease morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet many questions related to its diagnosis remain.

Fixed-Dose Artesunate–Amodiaquine Combination vs Chloroquine for Treatment of Uncomplicated Blood Stage P. vivax Infection in the Brazilian Amazon: An Open-Label Randomized, Controlled Trial

Background. Despite increasing evidence of the development of Plasmodium vivax chloroquine (CQ) resistance, there have been no trials comparing its efficacy with that of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) in Latin America.

Persistent, Albeit Reduced, Chronic Inflammation in Persons Starting Antiretroviral Therapy in Acute HIV Infection

Background. Serious non-AIDS events cause substantial disease and death despite human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) suppression with antiretroviral therapy (ART). Biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation cascade activation, and fibrosis predict these end-organ events. We aimed to determine whether ART initiation during acute HIV infection would attenuate changes in these biomarker ...

Simultaneous Emergence of Multidrug-Resistant Candida auris on 3 Continents Confirmed by Whole-Genome Sequencing and Epidemiological Analyses

Background. Candida auris, a multidrug-resistant yeast that causes invasive infections, was first described in 2009 in Japan and has since been reported from several countries.

Risk of Acute Kidney Injury in Patients on Concomitant Vancomycin and Piperacillin–Tazobactam Compared to Those on Vancomycin and Cefepime

Background. Recent evidence suggests that among patients receiving vancomycin, receipt of concomitant piperacillin–tazobactam increases the risk of nephrotoxicity. Well-controlled, adequately powered studies comparing rates of acute kidney injury (AKI) among patients receiving vancomycin + piperacillin–tazobactam (VPT) compared to similar patients receiving vancomycin + cefepime ...

Official American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Clinical Practice Guidelines: Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in Adults and Children

Background. Individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) may develop symptoms and signs of disease (tuberculosis disease) or may have no clinical evidence of disease (latent tuberculosis infection [LTBI]). Tuberculosis disease is a leading cause of infectious disease morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet many questions related to its diagnosis remain.

Coinfection With Zika and Dengue-2 Viruses in a Traveler Returning From Haiti, 2016: Clinical Presentation and Genetic Analysis

Zika virus and dengue virus serotype 2 were isolated from a patient with travel to Haiti who developed fever, rash, arthralgias, and conjunctivitis. The infecting Zika virus was related to Venezuelan and Brazilian strains but evolved along a lineage originating from strains isolated in 2014 in the same region of Haiti.

Hepatitis C Virus Postexposure Prophylaxis in the Healthcare Worker: Why Direct-Acting Antivirals Don't Change a Thing

Currently, 380 000–400 000 occupational exposures to blood-borne pathogens occur annually in the United States. The management for occupational HIV or hepatitis B virus exposures includes postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) when necessary; however, PEP is not recommended for hepatitis C virus (HCV) exposures. Recent approval of HCV direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) has renewed discussions ...

Effectiveness of Prenatal Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Acellular Pertussis Vaccination on Pertussis Severity in Infants

Background. All US women are recommended to receive a tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine at 27–36 weeks gestation during each pregnancy to reduce the risk of pertussis to their infants. The impact of this strategy on severity of disease among infected infants has not been evaluated. Methods. We use a retrospective cohort study design evaluating whether ...

Effectiveness of Prenatal Versus Postpartum Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Acellular Pertussis Vaccination in Preventing Infant Pertussis

Background. Most severe and fatal cases of pertussis occur in infants <8 weeks of age, before initiation of the primary pertussis vaccine series. Women are recommended to receive tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine at the start of the third trimester of each pregnancy to optimize transplacental transfer of antibodies to the fetus. This recommendation was ...

Diagnosis and Treatment of Leishmaniasis: Clinical Practice Guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH)

It is important to realize that leishmaniasis guidelines cannot always account for individual variation among patients. They are not intended to supplant physician judgment with respect to particular patients or special clinical situations. The IDSA and ASTMH consider adherence to these guidelines to be voluntary, with the ultimate determinations regarding their application to be ...

Quantifying and Valuing Community Health Worker Time in Improving Access to Malaria Diagnosis and Treatment

Background. Community health workers (CHWs) are members of a community who are chosen by their communities as first-line, volunteer health workers. The time they spend providing healthcare and the value of this time are often not evaluated. Our aim was to quantify the time CHWs spent on providing healthcare before and during the implementation of an integrated program of diagnosis ...

Assessing Acceptability of a Diagnostic and Malaria Treatment Package Delivered by Community Health Workers in Malaria-Endemic Settings of Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda

Background. The efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and rectal artesunate for severe malaria in children is proven. However, acceptability of a package of interventions that included use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), ACTs, and rectal artesunate when provided by community health workers (CHWs) is uncertain. This study assessed acceptability of use of ...