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Functional Morphology in Paleobiology: Origins of the Method of ‘Paradigms’

to the problematical cases of fossil organisms, for which functions cannot be observed directly. This article describes the origins of the kind of functional inference for fossils that I proposed in ... important primary research in this area. Abel himself was just the most prominent figure in a broad movement among paleontologists in continental Europe during the interwar period, which developed the idea of

Transforming identity discourses to promote local interests during municipal amalgamations

-institutionalise when amalgamated. Amalgamation can create new territorial borders, new political institutions and a new functional shape in a relatively short period. It takes however much more time for a symbolic ... emphasis and get stronger emotional overtones. Forced de-institutionalisation can thus result in the thickening of existing spatial identities discourses and their transformation into resistance identity

\(L^{2}\) -norm transformation for improving k-means clustering

there is no rich history of domain knowledge, one can easily make early commitments to poor modeling choices. Data transformation, a solution in effort to modify the data’s geometry, can make important ... in terms of learning complexity. In transforming the input representation, a singular transformation is applied across all regions of input space (Fig. 1). In this work, we study a method that strives

The epistemic superiority of experiment to simulation

This paper defends the naïve thesis that the method of experiment has per se an epistemic superiority over the method of computer simulation, a view that has been rejected by some philosophers ... denied that the difference between material and formal similarity has epistemic significance per se, and for that reason denied the generalization that experiment is a superior method. In partial support

Bacterial genome sequencing in clinical microbiology: a pathogen-oriented review

first bacterial genomes sequenced in 1995 [3, 4], it has come a long way and genome sequencing is now broadly implemented in research laboratories thanks to the rise of high-throughput sequencing [5 ... cultivated bacterial isolates. However, metagenomic shotgun amplification allowed the identification of foodborne pathogens directly from food samples [14–16]. Interestingly, Loman et al. used metagenomic

Epidemics spread in heterogeneous populations

, classical example of an epidemiological model. Originally, it has been suggested and studied in the continuous limit [4]. The SIR model is considered as a starting point for epidemiological modeling of many ... introduced to the discrete version of the SIR model, which is suitable for extensions and modifications. Observations of epidemics progress and their spatial patterns show that real populations are not

Implications of Interior Transformation

rights, desires, interests, and personal history. In relation with the established objectives it can be indicated that during this period the participants showed signs of improvement in the performance ... demanicomialization that is developed from the interior of a psychiatric hospital. This concept is conceived as the transformation of a mental health system (Cohen & Natella, 2013) so that the persons with mental

Clinical evaluation of marketed orthodontic products: are researchers behind the times? A meta-epidemiological study

established use of these devices and often failing to confirm the promise of manufacturers’ claims. This meta-epidemiological study was undertaken to assess the proportion of clinical trials in orthodontics ... marketed products and to evaluate the direction of the results of these studies. Methods: Electronic searching was undertaken to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published over a 5-year period (1

Reverse-transformation austenite structure control with micro/nanometer size

To control the reverse-transformation austenite structure through manipulation of the micro/nanometer grain structure, the influences of cold deformation and annealing parameters on the ... ; martensite; reverse transformation; grain refinement 1. Introduction Austenitic stainless steels have been widely used in artificial joints and other biomedical materials because of they are non-magnetic

An Integrative Eco-Epidemiological Analysis of West Nile Virus Transmission

(Tompkins et al. 2010), as the eco-epidemiological approach proposed by Susser and Susser (1996) that takes into account multi-level factors. Such a framework is particularly relevant when dealing with ... epidemiological data of either human cases (Cooke et al. 2006; Ruiz et al. 2007; Brown et al. 2008; Liu et al. 2009; Tran et al. 2014), equine cases (Ward 2005; Leblond et al. 2007; Mongoh et al. 2007; Pradier et

Branching process approach for epidemics in dynamic partnership network

individuals have at most n partners at a given time. A key parameter in epidemic modelling is the basic reproduction number, R0. In epidemics on networks, it is usually defined as the expected number of ... infected by one infectious individual during the early stages of the epidemic. We note that we are not able to prove that this R0 has the desired threshold property which it has for epidemics in

Molecular and epidemiological characterization of HIV-1 subtypes among Libyan patients

Background The epidemiological and clinical aspects of human immunodeficiency virus subtypes are of great interest worldwide. These subtypes are rarely studied in North African countries. Libya is a ... with the Libyan Study Group of Hepatitis HIV 0 Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tripoli , Tripoli , Libya Background: The epidemiological and

A robust fixed point transformation-based approach for type 1 diabetes control

unfavorable effects without simplifications. The recently developed nonlinear robust fixed point transformation (RFPT)-based controller design method requires only a roughly approximate model in order to ... 1960s when, according to [19], Rudolf Kalman “…challenged the accepted approach to control theory of that period, limited to the use of Laplace transforms and the frequency domain, by showing that the

Evaluation of vaccination strategies for SIR epidemics on random networks incorporating household structure

results for the final outcome and susceptibility sets of multitype stochastic SIR epidemics (households in our setting) are stated and applied to the asymptotic analyses of Sects. 2, 3 and 4. 2 Model ... infectious period, a given infective makes infectious contact with any given member of its household at the points of a Poisson process having rate λL and with any given global neighbour at the points of a

Response of marine benthic fauna to thin-layer capping with activated carbon in a large-scale field experiment in the Grenland fjords, Norway

A field experiment with thin-layer capping was conducted in the Grenland fjords, Norway, for remediation in situ of mercury and dioxin-contaminated sediments. Experimental fields at 30 and 95 m depth ... to 90% at both 30 and 95 m depth, and few indications of recovery were found during the period of this investigation. The negative effects of AC+clay were observed on a wide range of species with

Hydrogel-based phototherapy for fighting cancer and bacterial infection

for phototherapy applications. hydrogel; photodynamic therapy; photothermal therapy; anticancer; antibacterial - INTRODUCTION Cancer and bacterial infection are the two main life-threatening human ... diseases which afflict ten millions of people annually [1–3]. The conventional remedies for cancer are surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. For bacterial infection treatment, the antibiotics-based

The electron capture in 163Ho experiment – ECHo

experiment, ECHo, is designed to reach sub-eV sensitivity on the electron neutrino mass by means of the analysis of the calorimetrically measured electron capture spectrum of the nuclide 163Ho. The maximum ... spectrum are of utmost importance. The high-energy resolution 163Ho spectra measured with the first MMC prototypes with ion-implanted 163Ho set the basis for the ECHo experiment. We describe the conceptual

What a Difference a Stochastic Process Makes: Epidemiological-Based Real Options Models of Optimal Treatment of Disease

approach is applied to determine optimal timing of disease control given uncertainty in future disease progression. Real options; Logistic SDE; Disease control; Stochastic epidemics; Optimal timing 1 ... option to control the disease? How long should we delay actions in order to learn more? This paper advances the discussion by incorporating epidemiological models of disease spread within a real options

Idiopathic subglottic stenosis: an epidemiological single-center study

A retrospective epidemiological study of patients treated for idiopathic subglottic stenosis (ISS) during 2003–2013 at Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, was undertaken to assess its incidence ... applied twice for one minute per application, but during the early part of the study period, an intralesional corticosteroid injection was given instead. Dilatation was then carried out, using bougie or

Weather Information Acquisition and Health Significance during Extreme Cold Weather in a Subtropical City: A Cross-sectional Survey in Hong Kong

be far-reaching if societies fail to cope with them effectively. Abundant epidemiological evidence has established a causal relationship between mortality and cold weather (Carder et al. 2005; Anderson ... sociodemographic patterns of information acquisition behavior, and to establish the public health significance of using smartphone apps during a cold surge. 2 Extreme Cold Weather and Social Media in Hong Kong