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Osmoregulatory bicarbonate secretion exploits H+-sensitive haemoglobins to autoregulate intestinal O2 delivery in euryhaline teleosts

Marine teleost fish secrete bicarbonate (HCO3 −) into the intestine to aid osmoregulation and limit Ca2+ uptake by carbonate precipitation. Intestinal HCO3 − secretion is associated with an equimolar transport of protons (H+) into the blood, both being proportional to environmental salinity. We hypothesized that the H+-sensitive haemoglobin (Hb) system of seawater teleosts could be ...

The influence of moisture content variation on fungal pigment formation in spalted wood

Daniela Tudor 0 Sara C Robinson 0 Paul A Cooper 0 0 Faculty of Forestry, University of Toronto , 33 Willcocks Street, Toronto M5S 3B3, Canada Eight fungal species known to produce wood pigmentation

Stimulating growth and xylindein production of Chlorociboria aeruginascens in agar-based systems

Four isolates of Chlorociboria aeruginascens were tested for possible stimulatory effects when grown on malt agar media containing wood additives. The addition of any of the four types of test wood (Acer saccharum, Populus tremuloides, spalted P. tremuloides, and Ailanthus altissima), stimulated colony growth and xylindein production in C. aeruginascens. Addition of any amount of ...

The SseC translocon component in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is chaperoned by SscA

Background Salmonella enterica is a causative agent of foodborne gastroenteritis and the systemic disease known as typhoid fever. This bacterium uses two type three secretion systems (T3SSs) to translocate protein effectors into host cells to manipulate cellular function. Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-2 encodes a T3SS required for intracellular survival of the pathogen. ...

Differences in the Direction of Change of Cerebral Function Parameters Are Evident over Three Years in HIV-Infected Individuals Electively Commencing Initial cART

from Abbott, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb, GlaxoSmithKline, Merck Sharp and Dohme, Roche, IDS, Bayer Schering and Merck Serono. David A. Cooper has received honoraria, consultancies and

GogB Is an Anti-Inflammatory Effector that Limits Tissue Damage during Salmonella Infection through Interaction with Human FBXO22 and Skp1

. Cooper 0 David T. Mulder 0 Brian K. Coombes 0 David S. Schneider, Stanford University, United States of America 0 Michael G. DeGroote Institute for Infectious Disease Research and the Department of

High gene expression of inflammatory markers and IL-17A correlates with severity of injection site reactions of Atlantic salmon vaccinated with oil-adjuvanted vaccines

Background Two decades after the introduction of oil-based vaccines in the control of bacterial and viral diseases in farmed salmonids, the mechanisms of induced side effects manifested as intra-abdominal granulomas remain unresolved. Side effects have been associated with generation of auto-antibodies and autoimmunity but the underlying profile of inflammatory and immune response ...

Evolution of duplicated IgH loci in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar

Background The Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) locus possesses two parallel IgH isoloci (IGH-A and IGH-B), that are related to the genomic duplication event in the family Salmonidae. These duplicated IgH loci in Atlantic salmon provide a unique opportunity to examine the mechanisms of genome diversity and genome evolution of the IgH loci in ...

Membrane Type-1 Matrix Metalloproteinases and Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-2 RNA Levels Mimic Each Other during Xenopus laevis Metamorphosis

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their endogenous inhibitors TIMPs (tissue inhibitors of MMPs), are two protein families that work together to remodel the extracellular matrix (ECM). TIMPs serve not only to inhibit MMP activity, but also aid in the activation of MMPs that are secreted as inactive zymogens. Xenopus laevis metamorphosis is an ideal model for studying MMP and TIMP ...

Structural and Biochemical Characterization of SrcA, a Multi-Cargo Type III Secretion Chaperone in Salmonella Required for Pathogenic Association with a Host

Many Gram-negative bacteria colonize and exploit host niches using a protein apparatus called a type III secretion system (T3SS) that translocates bacterial effector proteins into host cells where their functions are essential for pathogenesis. A suite of T3SS-associated chaperone proteins bind cargo in the bacterial cytosol, establishing protein interaction networks needed for ...

EST and Mitochondrial DNA Sequences Support a Distinct Pacific Form of Salmon Louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis

Nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid sequences from approximately 15,000 salmon louse expressed sequence tags (ESTs), the complete mitochondrial genome (16,148bp) of salmon louse, and 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) genes from 68 salmon lice collected from Japan, Alaska, and western Canada support a Pacific lineage of Lepeophtheirus salmonis ...

Salmo salar and Esox lucius full-length cDNA sequences reveal changes in evolutionary pressures on a post-tetraploidization genome

Background Salmonids are one of the most intensely studied fish, in part due to their economic and environmental importance, and in part due to a recent whole genome duplication in the common ancestor of salmonids. This duplication greatly impacts species diversification, functional specialization, and adaptation. Extensive new genomic resources have recently become available for ...

A salmonid EST genomic study: genes, duplications, phylogeny and microarrays

Background Salmonids are of interest because of their relatively recent genome duplication, and their extensive use in wild fisheries and aquaculture. A comprehensive gene list and a comparison of genes in some of the different species provide valuable genomic information for one of the most widely studied groups of fish. Results 298,304 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from Atlantic ...

Fish and chips: Various methodologies demonstrate utility of a 16,006-gene salmonid microarray

Background We have developed and fabricated a salmonid microarray containing cDNAs representing 16,006 genes. The genes spotted on the array have been stringently selected from Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout expressed sequence tag (EST) databases. The EST databases presently contain over 300,000 sequences from over 175 salmonid cDNA libraries derived from a wide variety of ...

Genomic organization of duplicated major histocompatibility complex class I regions in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

Background We have previously identified associations between major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and resistance towards bacterial and viral pathogens in Atlantic salmon. To evaluate if only MHC or also closely linked genes contributed to the observed resistance we ventured into sequencing of the duplicated MHC class I regions of Atlantic salmon. Results Nine BACs ...

Meta-Analysis of the INSIG2 Association with Obesity Including 74,345 Individuals: Does Heterogeneity of Estimates Relate to Study Design?

Kronenberg Vera Adamkova Sonia S. Anand Kristin Ardlie Heike Biebermann Peter Bjerregaard Heiner Boeing Claude Bouchard Marina Ciullo Jackie A. Cooper Dolores Corella Christian Dina James C. Engert Eva Fisher

Postoperative malignant hyperthermia: A case report

Canad. Anaesth. Soc. J. j. BELDAVS .l.D. C.R.C.P.  V. SMALL C.R.C.P. 0 D. A. COOPER ~I.D. C.R.C.P. ~"AND g. A. BRITT DIP.ANAES. F.R.C.P. 0 Department of Anaesthesia and Department of Internal