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Cerebrospinal Fluid Exposure of Efavirenz and Its Major Metabolites When Dosed at 400 mg and 600 mg Once Daily: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Background. The optimal penetration of antiretroviral agents into the central nervous system may be a balance between providing adequate drug exposure to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication while avoiding concentrations associated with neuronal toxicities. Methods. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) exposure of efavirenz and the metabolites 7-hydroxy (7OH) and 8-hydroxy ...

Simplification of Antiretroviral Therapy with Tenofovir-Emtricitabine or Abacavir-Lamivudine: A Randomized, 96-Week Trial

Background. There are 2 once-daily, fixed-dose-combination, dual-nucleoside analogue tablets: tenofovir 300 mg-emtricitabine 200 mg (TDF-FTC) and abacavir 600 mg-lamivudine 300 mg (ABC-3TC). Which fixed-dose-combination tablet is more effective and safe is uncertain. Methods. We compared TDF-FTC and ABC-3TC in a randomized, open-label, 96-week trial in which either ...

Efavirenz versus Boosted Atazanavir or Zidovudine and Abacavir in Antiretroviral Treatment-Naive, HIV-Infected Subjects: Week 48 Data from the Altair Study

Sanchez, Graciela Guaragna, Cristina Miglioranza, Stella Maris Oliva, Liliana Trape; Australia: Jonathan Anderson, David A Cooper, Nicholas Doong, Dominic Dwyer, Martyn French, Jennifer Hoy, Pam Konecny

Does Choice of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART) Alter Changes in Cerebral Function Testing after 48 Weeks in Treatment-Naive, HIV-1–Infected Individuals Commencing cART? A Randomized, Controlled Study

Background. Neurocognitive impairment remains prevalent, despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Differences between changes in cerebral function and alternative cARTs have not been prospectively assessed. Methods. Treatment-naive, HIV-1–infected individuals randomly allocated to commence cART (tenofovir-emtricitabine plus either efavirenz [arm 1], atazanavir-ritonavir ...

The Safety, Efficacy, and Pharmacokinetic Profile of a Switch in Antiretroviral Therapy to Saquinavir, Ritonavir, and Atazanavir Alone for 48 Weeks and a Switch in the Saquinavir Formulation

Background. Toxicities observed with current combination antiretroviral therapy (CART) warrant a search for novel options, such as class-sparing regimens. Ritonavir-boosted double—protease inhibitor (PI)–only regimens are such an option but are prone to pharmacokinetic interactions. Methods. This 48-week randomized study examined the safety and efficacy of a switch in CART to a ...

Long-Term Efficacy and Safety of Raltegravir Combined with Optimized Background Therapy in Treatment-Experienced Patients with Drug-Resistant HIV Infection: Week 96 Results of the BENCHMRK 1 and 2 Phase III Trials

multidrug-resistant HIV. Principal investigators. BENCHMRK-1: A. Allworth, J. Anderson, M. Bloch, D. A. Cooper, J. Hoy, and C. Workman (Australia); N. Clumeck, R. Colebunders, and M. Moutschen (Belgium); J

A Prospective, Randomized Trial of Structured Treatment Interruption for Patients with Chronic HIV Type 1 Infection

Background. Structured treatment interruption was evaluated in 74 patients who had been pretreated with antiretrovirals, consisting of 2 nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) for 1 year followed by 3 years of highly active antiretroviral therapy containing a protease inhibitor. Methods. Patients with a CD4 cell count of ⩾350 cells/µL and a plasma viral load of <50 ...

Efficacy of the Protease Inhibitors Tipranavir plus Ritonavir in Treatment-Experienced Patients: 24-Week Analysis from the RESIST-1 Trial

Background. Improved treatment options are needed for patients infected with multidrug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The nonpeptidic protease inhibitor tipranavir has demonstrated antiviral activity against many protease inhibitor-resistant HIV-1 isolates. The Randomized Evaluation of Strategic Intervention in multi-drug reSistant patients with Tipranavir ...

Predictors of Virological Outcome and Safety in Primary HIV Type 1–Infected Patients Initiating Quadruple Antiretroviral Therapy: QUEST GW PROB3005

Bruno Hoen David A. Cooper Fiona C. Lampe Luc Perrin Nathan Clumeck Andrew N. Phillips Li-Ean Goh Stefan Lindback Daniel Sereni Brian Gazzard Julio Montaner Hans-Jurgen Stellbrink Adriano Lazzarin

Severity and Prognosis of Acute Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Illness: A Dose-Response Relationship

This study examined the relationship between the severity of acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) illness and disease progression and death. The population included 218 patients with acute HIV-1 illness and 41 asymptomatic patients who underwent HIV-1 seroconversion; the patients were followed up prospectively. We analyzed progression to Centers for Disease Control and ...

Acute Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Disease as a Mononucleosis-Like Illness: Is the Diagnosis Too Restrictive?

The purpose of this study was to describe the frequency and duration of clinical features at the time of acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease in 218 patients with documented symptomatic primary HIV-1 infection. The mean duration of acute HIV-1 disease was 25.1 days (median, 20.0 days) and did not differ by gender, age, and risk factor. The frequency and mean ...