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Molecular Analysis of Household Transmission of Giardia lamblia in a Region of High Endemicity in Peru

Background. Giardia lamblia is ubiquitous in multiple communities of nonindustrialized nations. Genotypes A1, A2, and B (Nash groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively) are found in humans, whereas genotypes C and D are typically found in dogs. However, genotypes A and B have occasionally been identified in dogs. Methods. Fecal Giardia isolates from 22 families and their dogs, living in ...

Disease Progression and Fatal Outcomes in HIV-Infected Patients during Interruption of Antiretroviral Treatment

0 David A. Cooper, Sean Emery, and Damien V. Cordery National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, University of New South Wales , Sydney, Australia - To the EditorSeveral recent

Inhibition of Telomerase Activity by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Nucleos(t)ide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: A Potential Factor Contributing to HIV-Associated Accelerated Aging

Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients on combination active antiretroviral therapy (cART) are at increased risk of age-related complications. We hypothesized that nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) may contribute to accelerated aging in HIV-infected individuals on cART via inhibition of telomerase activity. Methods. Telomerase activity ...

Mediators of Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses Differentially Affect Immune Restoration Disease Associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in HIV Patients Beginning Antiretroviral Therapy

Background. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in human immunodeficiency virus patients with treated or unrecognized Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection may result in tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) or ART-associated tuberculosis (ART-TB), respectively. Both conditions appear to be immune restoration disease but their ...

Intensification of Antiretroviral Therapy With Raltegravir or Addition of Hyperimmune Bovine Colostrum in HIV-Infected Patients With Suboptimal CD4+ T-Cell Response: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Background. Despite virally suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), some HIV-infected patients exhibit suboptimal CD4+ T-cell recovery. This study aimed to determine the effect of intensification of cART with raltegravir or addition of hyperimmune bovine colostrum (HIBC) on CD4+ T-cell count in such patients. Methods. We randomized 75 patients to 4 treatment groups ...

Low Bone Mineral Density, Renal Dysfunction, and Fracture Risk in HIV Infection: A Cross-Sectional Study

BackgroundReduced bone mineral density (BMD) is common in adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The role of proximal renal tubular dysfunction (PRTD) and alterations in bone metabolism in HIV-related low BMD are incompletely understood MethodsWe quantified BMD (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), blood and urinary markers of bone metabolism and renal function, and ...

Effect of Rosiglitazone on Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Gene Expression in Human Adipose Tissue Is Limited by Antiretroviral Drug-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction

common conditions. ROSEY INVESTIGATORS Steering committee: Andrew Carr (St. Vincent’s Hospital, Sydney; coprincipal investigator); David A. Cooper (coprincipal investigator), Dianne Carey, Sean Emery ... ; 143 : 337 - 46 . 21. Mallon PW , Sedwell R , Unemori P , Kelleher A , Cooper DA , Carr A . Methodological considerations in human studies of gene expression in HIV-associated lipodystrophy . Antivir

Immunopathogenesis and Diagnosis of Tuberculosis and Tuberculosis-Associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome during Early Antiretroviral Therapy

BackgroundIn many settings, the benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART) are reduced by the high early incidence of tuberculosis and tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) MethodsWe used tuberculin skin testing and the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube assay to investigate cellular immune responses to purified protein derivative (PPD) and region of ...

Sex, Race, and Geographic Region Influence Clinical Outcomes Following Primary HIV-1 Infection

ARTICLEBackground. It is unknown whether sex and race influence clinical outcomes following primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Methods. Data were evaluated from an observational, multicenter, primarily North American cohort of HIV-1 seroconverters. Results. Of 2277 seroconverters, 5.4% were women. At enrollment, women averaged .40 log10 fewer copies/mL ...

Viral Decay Dynamics in HIV-Infected Patients Receiving Ritonavir-Boosted Saquinavir and Efavirenz With or Without Enfuvirtide: A Randomized, Controlled Trial (HIV-NAT 012)

The availability of enfuvirtide enables assessment of whether human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) decay can be enhanced by targeting reverse transcriptase, protease, and fusion. We performed a 12-week study of 22 patients randomized to receive ritonavir-boosted saquinavir and efavirenz with (the 3-target arm) or without (the 2-target arm) enfuvirtide. We observed no difference in ...

CD8+ Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Suppressor Activity (CASA) in Response to Antiretroviral Therapy: Loss of CASA Is Associated with Loss of Viremia

CD8+ anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) suppressor activity (CASA) defines the noncytolytic suppression of HIV mediated by secreted soluble factors. Changes in CASA in patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy have not been described. Thirty-two HIV-infected patients receiving mono- or dual therapy for 52 weeks followed by highly active antiretroviral therapy ...

Long-Term Prognosis following Zidovudine Monotherapy in Primary Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection

Eighty-five subjects with symptomatic primary (P) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection were analyzed in a retrospective cohort study to investigate the long-term clinical benefit of antiretroviral treatment during PHIV infection. Zidovudine treatment was initiated (PHIV treatment group) in 21 persons a median of 9 days after onset of PHIV symptoms and continued for a ...

Changes in mitochondrial DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-infected patients with lipoatrophy randomized to receive abacavir

It has been suggested that lipoatrophy associated with exposure to nucleoside analogues is caused by depletion of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The aim of the present study was to determine whether switching treatment from a thymidine analogue to abacavir was associated with an increase in the mtDNA copy number in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Of 111 patients with ...

Maraviroc versus Efavirenz, Both in Combination with Zidovudine-Lamivudine, for the Treatment of Antiretroviral-Naive Subjects with CCR5-tropic HIV-1 Infection

Background. The MERIT (Maraviroc versus Efavirenz in Treatment-Naive Patients) study compared maraviroc and efavirenz, both with zidovudine-lamivudine, in antiretroviral-naive patients with R5 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Methods. Patients screened for R5 HIV-1 were randomized to receive efavirenz (600 mg once daily) or maraviroc (300 mg once or twice ...

Increased Plasma Interleukin-7 Level Correlates with Decreased CDl27 and Increased CD132 Extracellular Expression on T Cell Subsets in Patients with HN-1 Infection

Background. Interleukin (IL)-7 levels are increased in patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (H1V-l)-associated lymphopenia; however, the effects of this on IL-7 receptor (IL-7R) expression, disease progression, and immune reconstitution remain unclear. Methods. Plasma IL-7 levels were measured, by enzyme-linked immunoassay, in patients with primary, chronic, or ...

Incubation Time of Acute Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection and Duration of Acute HIV Infection Are Independent Prognostic Factors of Progression to AIDS

The severity and the duration of acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (AHI) are associated with a faster rate of progression to AIDS, but the prognostic value of the length of incubation time of AHI (IncAHI), defined as the time between HIV infection and AHI, on progression to AIDS has not been assessed. We explored this issue prospectively in 70 individuals with ...

Alterations in the Immune Response of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected Subjects Treated with an HIV-Specific Protease Inhibitor, Ritonavir

D. A. Cooper 0 1 0 Received 25 May 1995; revised 4 October 1995. Presented in part: 2nd National Conference on Human Retroviruses and Related Infection , Washington, DC, 29 January-2 February 1995

Changes in Body Composition and Mitochondrial Nucleic Acid Content in Patients Switched from Failed Nucleoside Analogue Therapy to Ritonavir-Boosted Indinavir and Efavirenz

BackgroundBody composition changes complicate antiretroviral therapy. Improvements in lipoatrophy after a switch in nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) have been demonstrated. We investigated 60 patients switching from failed NRTIs to ritonavir-boosted indinavir and efavirenz MethodsBody composition (assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan and by ...

Efficacy of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate in Antiretroviral Therapy-Naive and -Experienced Patients Coinfected with HIV-1 and Hepatitis B Virus

Background. Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) increases the risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated progressive liver disease. Lamivudine has potent activity against both HIV-1 and HBV; however, lamivudine-resistance mutations in HBV frequently develop. Methods. Substudies of the safety and efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (tenofovir DF) for ...

Dual Efficacy of Lamivudine Treatment in Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Hepatitis B Virus—Coinfected Persons in a Randomized, Controlled Study (CAESAR)

The efficacy and safety of lamivudine in persons coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 and hepatitis B virus (HBV) were examined in the CAESAR study, a randomized placebo-controlled trial assessing the addition of lamivudine (150 mg 2×/day) or lamivudine (150 mg 2×/day) plus loviride (100 mg 3×/day) to zidovudine-containing background antiretroviral treatment. ...