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The clinical trajectory of emerging bipolar disorder among the high-risk offspring of bipolar parents: current understanding and future considerations

Background Relatively little is known about the onset of bipolar disorder, yet the early illness course is already associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore, characterizing the bipolar illness trajectory is key to risk prediction and early intervention advancement. Main body In this narrative review, we discuss key findings from prospective longitudinal...

Efficacy and tolerability of lithium in treating acute mania in youth with bipolar disorder: protocol for a systematic review

Background Epidemiological, clinical, and high-risk studies have provided evidence that the peak period for onset of diagnosable episodes of mania and hypomania starts in mid-to-late adolescence. Moreover, clinically significant manic symptoms may occur even earlier, especially in children at familial risk. Lithium is the gold standard treatment for acute mania in adults, yet to...

Socioeconomic and Other Demographic Disparities Predicting Survival among Head and Neck Cancer Patients

Background The Institute of Medicine (IOM) report, “Unequal Treatment,” which defines disparities as racially based, indicates that disparities in cancer diagnosis and treatment are less clear. While a number of studies have acknowledged cancer disparities, they have limitations of retrospective nature, small sample sizes, inability to control for covariates, and measurement...

Disease in freshwater zooplankton: what have we learned and where are we going?

In the last few decades, zooplankton (especially Daphnia) have emerged as a model system for examining the ecological and evolutionary roles of parasites in populations, communities and ecosystems. We build on this foundation, moving towards continued integration of epidemiology and community ecology to understand the distribution and abundance of infectious diseases. Future...

Second-line treatment in advanced pancreatic cancer: a comprehensive analysis of published clinical trials

Background There is currently no standard of care for the second-line treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer. The aim of this analysis was to compare the different therapeutic approaches in this setting.

Protocol of a randomized controlled trial of sun protection interventions for operating engineers

Background Skin cancer are increasing and some types of skin cancer are among the most lethal cancers yet are easily preventable. However, sun protection interventions are rarely implemented among outdoor workers. Our prior work shows that Michigan Operating Engineers (heavy equipment operators) spend an average of 4–5 hours in the sun, about one-third reported getting sun burned...

Enrichment and Training Improve Cognition in Rats with Cortical Malformations

Children with malformations of cortical development (MCD) frequently have associated cognitive impairments which reduce quality of life. We hypothesized that cognitive deficits associated with MCD can be improved with environmental manipulation or additional training. The E17 methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) exposure model bears many anatomical hallmarks seen in human MCDs as...

Comparison of usual podiatric care and early physical therapy intervention for plantar heel pain: study protocol for a parallel-group randomized clinical trial

W Flynn Bryan C Heiderscheit Thomas G McPoil Daniel Pinto Pamela A Duffy John D Bennett 0 Department of Physical Therapy, Des Moines University , 3200 Grand Avenue, Des Moines, IA 50312 , USA 1 Rocky

Epidemiology of a Daphnia-Multiparasite System and Its Implications for the Red Queen

The Red Queen hypothesis can explain the maintenance of host and parasite diversity. However, the Red Queen requires genetic specificity for infection risk (i.e., that infection depends on the exact combination of host and parasite genotypes) and strongly virulent effects of infection on host fitness. A European crustacean (Daphnia magna) – bacterium (Pasteuria ramosa) system...

Dissemination of the nurse-administered Tobacco Tactics intervention versus usual care in six Trinity community hospitals: study protocol for a comparative effectiveness trial

BackgroundThe objectives of this smoking cessation study among hospitalized smokers are to: 1) determine provider and patient receptivity, barriers, and facilitators to implementing the nurse-administered, inpatient Tobacco Tactics intervention versus usual care using face-to-face feedback and surveys; 2) compare the effectiveness of the nurse-administered, inpatient Tobacco...

Protocol of a randomized controlled trial of the Tobacco Tactics website for operating engineers

BackgroundRecent research indicates that 35 percent of blue-collar workers in the US currently smoke while only 20 percent of white-collar workers smoke. Over the last year, we have been working with heavy equipment operators, specifically the Local 324 Training Center of the International Union of Operating Engineers, to study the epidemiology of smoking, which is 29% compared...

Regional differentiation and post-glacial expansion of the Atlantic silverside, Menidia menidia, an annual fish with high dispersal potential

. Young Drive South, Los Angeles, CA 90045, USA 4 L. A. Hice T. A. Duffy D. O. Conover School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University , Stony Brook, NY 11794-5000, USA The coastal marine

Using a state cancer registry to recruit young breast cancer survivors and high-risk relatives: protocol of a randomized trial testing the efficacy of a targeted versus a tailored intervention to increase breast cancer screening

Background The Michigan Prevention Research Center, the University of Michigan Schools of Nursing, Public Health, and Medicine, and the Michigan Department of Community Health propose a multidisciplinary academic-clinical practice three-year project to increase breast cancer screening among young breast cancer survivors and their cancer-free female relatives at greatest risk for...

Violating stereotypes: Eye movements and comprehension processes when text conflicts with world knowledge

SUSAN A. DUFFY 0 JESSICA A. KEIR 0 0 University of Massachusetts , Amherst, Massachusetts We investigated the effect of discourse context on the access of word meaning during reading. Target words

Global context effects on processing lexically ambiguous words: Evidence from eye fixations

Readers' eye movements were monitored as they read biased ambiguous target words in the context of a short paragraph. Two aspects of context were manipulated. The global context was presented in the topic sentence of the paragraph and instantiated either the dominant or the subordinate meaning of biased ambiguous target words (those with highly dominant meanings). Local...

Comprehensive Analysis of DNA Methylation in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Indicates Differences by Survival and Clinicopathologic Characteristics

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the eighth most commonly diagnosed cancer in the United States. The risk of developing HNSCC increases with exposure to tobacco, alcohol and infection with human papilloma virus (HPV). HPV-associated HNSCCs have a distinct risk profile and improved prognosis compared to cancers associated with tobacco and alcohol exposure...

An eye-movement-contingent probe paradigm

A new eye-movement-contingent probe task is presented in which readers’ eye movements are monitored as they read sentences and respond to a probe word; the timing of the display of the probe word is dependent on fixation of a target word. The present study examined semantic priming effects. The target word was either related (doctor) or unrelated (lawyer) to the probe word (nurse...

Parasite-mediated disruptive selection in a natural Daphnia population

Background A mismatch has emerged between models and data of host-parasite evolution. Theory readily predicts that parasites can promote host diversity through mechanisms such as disruptive selection. Yet, despite these predictions, empirical evidence for parasite-mediated increases in host diversity remains surprisingly scant. Results Here, we document parasite-mediated...