Advanced search    

Search: authors:"A. Duncan Steele"

21 papers found.
Use AND, OR, NOT, +word, -word, "long phrase", (parentheses) to fine-tune your search.

Norovirus Epidemiology in Africa: A Review

Norovirus (NoV) is recognised as a leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide across all age groups. The prevalence and diversity of NoVs in many African countries is still unknown, although early sero-prevalence studies indicated widespread early infection. Reports on NoVs in Africa vary widely in terms of study duration, population groups and size, inclusion of asymptomatic...

Health Impact of Rotavirus Vaccination in Developing Countries: Progress and Way Forward

Two rotavirus vaccines have been licensed in >100 countries worldwide since 2006. As of October 2105, these vaccines have been implemented in the national immunization programs of 79 countries, including 36 low-income countries that are eligible for support for vaccine purchase from Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. Rotavirus vaccines were initially introduced in Australia and...

Challenges and Opportunities for Typhoid Fever Control: A Call for Coordinated Action

The burden of enteric fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi is substantial and has high impact in toddlers and young children. This burden is relatively well documented in Asia, and this supplement provides new data on the substantial burden in several sub-Saharan African countries. Challenges in standardized surveillance and imperfect diagnostic tools...

A Randomized, Controlled Trial of the Impact of Alternative Dosing Schedules on the Immune Response to Human Rotavirus Vaccine in Rural Ghanaian Infants

Background. The recommended schedule for receipt of 2-dose human rotavirus vaccine (HRV) coincides with receipt of the first and second doses of diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus vaccine (ie, 6 and 10 weeks of age, respectively). Alternative schedules and additional doses of HRV have been proposed and may improve vaccine performance in low-income countries. Methods. In this...

Noninterference of Rotavirus Vaccine With Measles-Rubella Vaccine at 9 Months of Age and Improvements in Antirotavirus Immunity: A Randomized Trial

Background. The burden of rotavirus morbidity and mortality is high in children aged <5 years in developing countries, and evaluations indicate waning protection from rotavirus immunization in the second year. An additional dose of rotavirus vaccine may enhance the immune response and lengthen the period of protection against disease, but coadministration of this dose should not...

Characterization of Rotavirus Strains Detected in Windhoek, Namibia during 1998–1999

Background. Namibia, located on the southwestern coast of southern Africa, is characterized by vast deserts, limited fresh water, and low population density. Mortality estimates among children <5 of age are 63 deaths per 1000 live-births, with diarrheal diseases contributing to 3% of these deaths. Data on the burden of rotavirus disease and circulating serotypes in Namibia are...

Rotavirus VP4 and VP7 Genotypes Circulating in Cameroon: Identification of Unusual Types

Rotavirus remains a priority candidate for vaccine development, because it is the major cause of viral diarrhea in children worldwide. This study characterized rotavirus strains in 195 stool specimens collected from children <5 years of age with diarrhea, in the Southwest Province and Western Province of Cameroon during 1999–2000. The predominant G type was G1 (detected in 44.9...

Rotavirus Strain Types Circulating in Africa: Review of Studies Published during 1997–2006

Rotavirus is responsible for more than half a million deaths among infants and young children worldwide each year; many of these deaths could be prevented by widespread use of an effective rotavirus vaccine. The diversity of rotavirus strains in many developing countries, where most rotavirus deaths occur, could represent a significant challenge to the efficacy of current...

Prevalence and Diversity of Rotavirus Strains in Children with Acute Diarrhea from Rural Communities in the Limpopo Province, South Africa, from 1998 to 2000

Background. Data regarding the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of rotavirus infection in rural areas of Africa are limited. In this study the prevalence and genetic diversity of rotaviruses in a rural South African setting were investigated. Methods. During June 1998 to June 2000, 420 stool specimens were collected from children with acute diarrhea who visited primary...

Characterization of Human Rotavirus Strains from Children with Diarrhea in Nairobi and Kisumu, Kenya, between 2000 and 2002

Rotavirus infection is a major cause of diarrheal illness and hospitalization in children <5 years old in Kenya and has been described in various settings and locations across the country and for different time points. In this study, we expand on the molecular characterization of rotavirus strains collected in Nairobi and Kisumu, Kenya, between 2000 and 2002. Rotavirus strains...

A Review of Rotavirus Infection in and Vaccination of Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Infected Children

Diarrhea caused by infection with rotavirus annually results in an estimated 611,000 deaths among infants and young children <5 years of age worldwide, and these deaths primarily occur in developing countries. Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is also common among young children in many developing countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. The need...

Rotavirus Vaccines for Infants in Developing Countries in Africa and Asia: Considerations from a World Health Organization–Sponsored Consultation

The World Health Organization (WHO) and its international partners have prioritized the development of rotavirus vaccines for the past 3 decades. In November 2005, the WHO’s Strategic Advisory Group of Experts first reviewed the clinical efficacy data from 2 new live attenuated oral rotavirus vaccines, which demonstrated excellent protective efficacy against severe rotavirus...

The Epidemiology of Rotavirus Diarrhea in Countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region

Objective. Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea among children worldwide, killing ∼600,000 children annually, including 64,800 in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Safe, effective rotavirus vaccines will be available soon, and accurate disease burden data will be needed to assess the burden of rotavirus and the value of new vaccines and monitor vaccine program impact...

Emergence and Characterization of Serotype G9 Rotavirus Strains from Africa

Serotype G9 strains have been detected sporadically and in localized outbreaks in various African countries, including South Africa, Botswana, Malawi, Kenya, Cameroon, Nigeria, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Libya, and Mauritius. Serotype G9 strains were analyzed to investigate genogroup characteristics, including subgroup specificity, electropherotype, and P and G genotypes. In addition...

Prospective Hospital-Based Surveillance to Estimate Rotavirus Disease Burden in the Gauteng and North West Province of South Africa during 2003–2005

Background. Rotavirus is considered to be the most common cause of serious acute dehydrating diarrhea worldwide. However, there is a scarcity of information on rotavirus disease burden in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods. We conducted prospective, hospital-based surveillance for rotavirus diarrhea among children <5 years of age at the tertiary care Dr. George Mukhari Hospital (DGM...

Characterization of Human Rotavirus Recovered from Children with Acute Diarrhea in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

Between July and October of 2003, 2004, and 2005, outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis occurred among children <5 years of age in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Stool specimens (67 in 2003, 108 in 2004, and 116 in 2005) were collected and screened for rotaviruses using either latex agglutination (Diarlex LAA; Orion Diagnostics) or enzyme immunoassay (IDEIA...

Rotavirus Strain Diversity in the Centre Coast of Tunisia from 2000 through 2003

An epidemiological survey investigating rotavirus infection in children was undertaken in the coastal region of Tunisia from January 2000 through September 2003. A total of 309 fecal specimens were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and latex agglutination assay for the presence of group A rotavirus antigen. The detection rate was 26.2%. Rotavirus outbreaks showed a...

Molecular Characterization of Rotavirus Strains Circulating in Oman in 2005

Limited genotyping data are available for rotavirus strains in the Middle East. In this study, we investigated the molecular epidemiology of human rotavirus strains circulating in the Sultanate of Oman during 2005. Rotavirus was detected in 178 (57.4%) of 310 of the diarrheal stools of young children <5 years admitted to hospitals and outpatients clinics. Polyacrylamide gel...

Burden and Epidemiology of Rotavirus Diarrhea in Selected African Countries: Preliminary Results from the African Rotavirus Surveillance Network

Severe rotavirus diarrhea in children <5 years of age is a major public health problem; however, limited regional and country specific data on rotavirus disease burden are available from sub-Saharan Africa. In June 2006, the World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa initiated rotavirus surveillance in selected African countries. With use of standardized methodology...