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Development and application of a TaqMan single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping assay to study infectious laryngotracheitis virus recombination in the natural host

To date, recombination between different strains of the avian alphaherpesvirus infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) has only been detected in field samples using full genome sequencing and sequence analysis. These previous studies have revealed that natural recombination is widespread in ILTV and have demonstrated that recombination between two attenuated ILTV vaccine strains ...

Habitual levels of higher, but not medium or low, impact physical activity are positively related to lower limb bone strength in older women: findings from a population-based study using accelerometers to classify impact magnitude

Summary This study assessed the effect of accelerometry-measured higher impacts resulting from habitual weight-bearing activity on lower limb bone strength in older women. Despite higher impacts being experienced rarely in this population-based cohort, positive associations were observed between higher vertical impacts and lower limb bone size and strength. Introduction We ...

Individual differences in learning predict the return of fear

2 Catherine A. Hartley 3 Samuel J. Gershman Using a laboratory analogue of learned fear (Pavlovian fear conditioning), we show that there is substantial heterogeneity across individuals in

Backward compatibility effects in younger and older adults

Alan A. Hartley 3 Department of Psychology, Clark University , Worcester, MA , USA 4 School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Center for Vital Longevity, University of Texas-Dallas , Dallas, TX , USA In

A novel accelerometer-based method to describe day-to-day exposure to potentially osteogenic vertical impacts in older adults: findings from a multi-cohort study

Summary This observational study assessed vertical impacts experienced in older adults as part of their day-to-day physical activity using accelerometry and questionnaire data. Population-based older adults experienced very limited high-impact activity. The accelerometry method utilised appeared to be valid based on comparisons between different cohorts and with self-reported ...

Experiential reward learning outweighs instruction prior to adulthood

Throughout our lives, we face the important task of distinguishing rewarding actions from those that are best avoided. Importantly, there are multiple means by which we acquire this information. Through trial and error, we use experiential feedback to evaluate our actions. We also learn which actions are advantageous through explicit instruction from others. Here, we examined ...

Consider the Source: Adolescents and Adults Similarly Follow Older Adult Advice More than Peer Advice

Individuals learn which of their actions are likely to be rewarded through trial and error. This form of learning is critical for adapting to new situations, which adolescents frequently encounter. Adolescents are also greatly influenced by their peers. The current study tested the extent to which adolescents rely on peer advice to guide their actions. Adolescent and young adult ...

Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in the Abrogation of Oxaliplatin Activity by Cetuximab in Colorectal Cancer

Background: The antibody cetuximab, targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), is used to treat metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Clinical trials suggest reduced benefit from the combination of cetuximab with oxaliplatin. The aim of this study was to investigate potential negative interactions between cetuximab and oxaliplatin.

Protection Induced in Broiler Chickens following Drinking-Water Delivery of Live Infectious Laryngotracheitis Vaccines against Subsequent Challenge with Recombinant Field Virus

Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) causes acute upper respiratory tract disease in chickens. Attenuated live ILTV vaccines are often used to help control disease, but these vaccines have well documented limitations, including retention of residual virulence, incomplete protection, transmission of vaccine virus to unvaccinated birds and reversion to high levels of virulence ...

Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection presenting as a testicular mass in an immunocompromised patient: a case report

Isolated mycobacterial infections of the genital tract are extremely rare. Here we present a 63-year-old gentleman who developed an isolated non-tuberculous mycobacterial mass in the inferior pole of his right testis, secondary to immunocompromise related to multiple autoimmune and haematological conditions and their treatments.

Growth Kinetics and Transmission Potential of Existing and Emerging Field Strains of Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus

Attenuated live infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) vaccines are widely used in the poultry industry to control outbreaks of disease. Natural recombination between commercial ILTV vaccines has resulted in virulent recombinant viruses that cause severe disease, and that have now emerged as the dominant field strains in important poultry producing regions in Australia. Genotype ...

Recombinant Herpesvirus Glycoprotein G Improves the Protective Immune Response to Helicobacter pylori Vaccination in a Mouse Model of Disease

Alphaherpesviruses, which have co-evolved with their hosts for more than 200 million years, evade and subvert host immune responses, in part, by expression of immuno-modulatory molecules. Alphaherpesviruses express a single, broadly conserved chemokine decoy receptor, glycoprotein G (gG), which can bind multiple chemokine classes from multiple species, including human and mouse. ...

Brain Structure Correlates of Individual Differences in the Acquisition and Inhibition of Conditioned Fear

Research employing aversive conditioning paradigms has elucidated the neurocircuitry involved in acquiring and diminishing fear responses. However, the factors underlying individual differences in fear acquisition and inhibition are not presently well understood. In this study, we explored whether the magnitude of individuals' acquired fear responses and the modulation of these ...

Electrodermal responses to sources of dual-task interference

speculations of others on the basis of behavioral, neural network, and neuroimaging results. Author Note Alan A. Hartley, Rayna D. Brooks, Sara B. Festini, and Kathryn Frazier, Department of Psychology, Scripps

Phylogenetic and Molecular Epidemiological Studies Reveal Evidence of Multiple Past Recombination Events between Infectious Laryngotracheitis Viruses

In contrast to the RNA viruses, the genome of large DNA viruses such as herpesviruses have been considered to be relatively stable. Intra-specific recombination has been proposed as an important, but underestimated, driving force in herpesvirus evolution. Recently, two distinct field strains of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) have been shown to have arisen from ...

Phase I study of TP300 in patients with advanced solid tumors with pharmacokinetic, pharmacogenetic and pharmacodynamic analyses

Background A Phase I dose escalation first in man study assessed maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and recommended Phase II dose of TP300, a water soluble prodrug of the Topo-1 inhibitor TP3076, and active metabolite, TP3011. Methods Eligible patients with refractory advanced solid tumors, adequate performance status, haematologic, renal, and hepatic ...

Evidence for different mechanisms of ‘unhooking’ for melphalan and cisplatin-induced DNA interstrand cross-links in vitro and in clinical acquired resistant tumour samples

Background DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs) are critical lesions produced by several cancer chemotherapy agents including platinum drugs and nitrogen mustards. We have previously shown in haematological (multiple myeloma) and solid tumours (ovarian cancer) that clinical sensitivity to such agents can result from a defect in DNA ICL processing leading to their persistence. ...

First complete genome sequence of infectious laryngotracheitis virus

Background Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes acute respiratory disease in chickens worldwide. To date, only one complete genomic sequence of ILTV has been reported. This sequence was generated by concatenating partial sequences from six different ILTV strains. Thus, the full genomic sequence of a single (individual) strain of ILTV has not ...

A 96-well DNase I footprinting screen for drug–DNA interactions

The established protocol for DNase I footprinting has been modified to allow multiple parallel reactions to be rapidly performed in 96-well microtitre plates. By scrutinizing every aspect of the traditional method and making appropriate modifications it has been possible to considerably reduce the time, risk of sample loss and complexity of footprinting, whilst dramatically ...