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Quantitative analysis of circadian single cell oscillations in response to temperature

analysis. Author Contributions Conceptualization: Achim Kramer, Hanspeter Herzel. Data curation: Ute Abraham, Julia Katharina Schlichting. Formal analysis: Ute Abraham, Julia Katharina Schlichting. Funding ... acquisition: Achim Kramer, Hanspeter Herzel. Investigation: Ute Abraham. Methodology: Hanspeter Herzel. Project administration: Ute Abraham. Resources: Achim Kramer, Hanspeter Herzel. Software: Julia

Human Chronotypes from a Theoretical Perspective

The endogenous circadian timing system has evolved to synchronize an organism to periodically recurring environmental conditions. Those external time cues are called Zeitgebers. When entrained by a Zeitgeber, the intrinsic oscillator adopts a fixed phase relation to the Zeitgeber. Here, we systematically study how the phase of entrainment depends on clock and Zeitgeber properties...

A Circadian Clock in Antarctic Krill: An Endogenous Timing System Governs Metabolic Output Rhythms in the Euphausid Species Euphausia superba

Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, shapes the structure of the Southern Ocean ecosystem. Its central position in the food web, the ongoing environmental changes due to climatic warming, and increasing commercial interest on this species emphasize the urgency of understanding the adaptability of krill to its environment. Krill has evolved rhythmic physiological and behavioral...

Dynamic Circadian Protein–Protein Interaction Networks Predict Temporal Organization of Cellular Functions

Essentially all biological processes depend on protein–protein interactions (PPIs). Timing of such interactions is crucial for regulatory function. Although circadian (∼24-hour) clocks constitute fundamental cellular timing mechanisms regulating important physiological processes, PPI dynamics on this timescale are largely unknown. Here, we identified 109 novel PPIs among...

Tuning the Mammalian Circadian Clock: Robust Synergy of Two Loops

The circadian clock is accountable for the regulation of internal rhythms in most living organisms. It allows the anticipation of environmental changes during the day and a better adaptation of physiological processes. In mammals the main clock is located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and synchronizes secondary clocks throughout the body. Its molecular constituents form an...

Phosphorylation of a Central Clock Transcription Factor Is Required for Thermal but Not Photic Entrainment

Transcriptional/translational feedback loops drive daily cycles of expression in clock genes and clock-controlled genes, which ultimately underlie many of the overt circadian rhythms manifested by organisms. Moreover, phosphorylation of clock proteins plays crucial roles in the temporal regulation of clock protein activity, stability and subcellular localization. dCLOCK (dCLK...

Ras-Mediated Deregulation of the Circadian Clock in Cancer

Circadian rhythms are essential to the temporal regulation of molecular processes in living systems and as such to life itself. Deregulation of these rhythms leads to failures in biological processes and eventually to the manifestation of pathological phenotypes including cancer. To address the questions as to what are the elicitors of a disrupted clock in cancer, we applied a...

Protein Phosphatase 1 (PP1) Is a Post-Translational Regulator of the Mammalian Circadian Clock

Circadian clocks coordinate the timing of important biological processes. Interconnected transcriptional and post-translational feedback loops based on a set of clock genes generate and maintain these rhythms with a period of about 24 hours. Many clock proteins undergo circadian cycles of post-translational modifications. Among these modifications, protein phosphorylation plays...

Global parameter search reveals design principles of the mammalian circadian clock

Background Virtually all living organisms have evolved a circadian (~24 hour) clock that controls physiological and behavioural processes with exquisite precision throughout the day/night cycle. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which generates these ~24 h rhythms in mammals, consists of several thousand neurons. Each neuron contains a gene-regulatory network generating...

Synchronization-Induced Rhythmicity of Circadian Oscillators in the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

The suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) host a robust, self-sustained circadian pacemaker that coordinates physiological rhythms with the daily changes in the environment. Neuronal clocks within the SCN form a heterogeneous network that must synchronize to maintain timekeeping activity. Coherent circadian output of the SCN tissue is established by intercellular signaling factors, such...

Regulation of Clock-Controlled Genes in Mammals

The complexity of tissue- and day time-specific regulation of thousands of clock-controlled genes (CCGs) suggests that many regulatory mechanisms contribute to the transcriptional output of the circadian clock. We aim to predict these mechanisms using a large scale promoter analysis of CCGs. Our study is based on a meta-analysis of DNA-array data from rodent tissues. We searched...

Structural and Functional Analyses of PAS Domain Interactions of the Clock Proteins Drosophila PERIOD and Mouse PERIOD2

PERIOD proteins are central components of the Drosophila and mammalian circadian clocks. The crystal structure of a Drosophila PERIOD (dPER) fragment comprising two PER-ARNT-SIM (PAS) domains (PAS-A and PAS-B) and two additional C-terminal α-helices (αE and αF) has revealed a homodimer mediated by intermolecular interactions of PAS-A with tryptophane 482 in PAS-B and helix αF...