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A survey on the state of nanosafety research in the European Union and the United States

Researchers in the field of environmental safety and health of nanomaterials (nanosafety) were surveyed between September 2017 and January 2018 to obtain a snapshot on the state of investigations in this field. The data received from 84 respondents give information on exposure pathways, methods, biologic and toxic effects, dose metrics and range, criteria for selecting benchmark...

NOD1 modulates IL-10 signalling in human dendritic cells

Molecular Biology, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, AustriaTheresa Neuper, Harald Schwarz, Albert Duschl & Jutta Horejs-HoeckInstitute of Nutritional Medicine, Department of Immunology, University of ... for Albert Duschl in:Nature Research journals • PubMed • Google Scholar Search for Jutta Horejs-Hoeck in:Nature Research journals • PubMed • Google Scholar Contributions Conceived and designed the

Biological Activity of Masked Endotoxin

Alejandra Parigiani, Michael Wallner, Albert Duschl & Jutta Horejs-Hoeck AuthorsSearch for Harald Schwarz in:Nature Research journals • PubMed • Google ScholarSearch for Jan Gornicec in:Nature Research ... ScholarSearch for Michael Wallner in:Nature Research journals • PubMed • Google ScholarSearch for Albert Duschl in:Nature Research journals • PubMed • Google ScholarSearch for Jutta Horejs-Hoeck in:Nature

Copper oxide nanoparticle toxicity profiling using untargeted metabolomics

Background The rapidly increasing number of engineered nanoparticles (NPs), and products containing NPs, raises concerns for human exposure and safety. With this increasing, and ever changing, catalogue of NPs it is becoming more difficult to adequately assess the toxic potential of new materials in a timely fashion. It is therefore important to develop methods which can provide...

Residual Endotoxin Contaminations in Recombinant Proteins Are Sufficient to Activate Human CD1c+ Dendritic Cells

Many commercially available recombinant proteins are produced in Escherichia coli, and most suppliers guarantee contamination levels of less than 1 endotoxin unit (EU). When we analysed commercially available proteins for their endotoxin content, we found contamination levels in the same range as generally stated in the data sheets, but also some that were higher. To analyse...

Nanoparticle-allergen interactions mediate human allergic responses: protein corona characterization and cellular responses

Background Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) interact with different biomolecules as soon as they are in contact, resulting in the formation of a biomolecule ‘corona’. Hence, the ‘corona’ defines the biological identity of the ENMs and could affect the response of the immune system to ENM exposure. With up to 40 % of the world population suffering from type I allergy, a possible...

Impact of nanosilver on various DNA lesions and HPRT gene mutations – effects of charge and surface coating

Background The main goal of this research was to study the interactions of a fully characterized set of silver nanomaterials (Ag ENMs) with cells in vitro, according to the standards of Good Laboratory Practices (GLP), to assure the quality of nanotoxicology research. We were interested in whether Ag ENMs synthesized by the same method, with the same size distribution, shape and...

Is the toxic potential of nanosilver dependent on its size?

Background Nanosilver is one of the most commonly used engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). In our study we focused on assessing the size-dependence of the toxicity of nanosilver (Ag ENMs), utilising materials of three sizes (50, 80 and 200 nm) synthesized by the same method, with the same chemical composition, charge and coating. Methods Uptake and localisation (by Transmission...

Altered characteristics of silica nanoparticles in bovine and human serum: the importance of nanomaterial characterization prior to its toxicological evaluation

Background Many toxicological studies on silica nanoparticles (NPs) have been reported, however, the literature often shows various conclusions concerning the same material. This is mainly due to a lack of sufficient NPs characterization as synthesized as well as in operando. Many characteristics of NPs may be affected by the chemistry of their surroundings and the presence of...

Assessment of a panel of interleukin-8 reporter lung epithelial cell lines to monitor the pro-inflammatory response following zinc oxide nanoparticle exposure under different cell culture conditions

Background Stably transfected lung epithelial reporter cell lines pose an advantageous alternative to replace complex experimental techniques to monitor the pro-inflammatory response following nanoparticle (NP) exposure. Previously, reporter cell lines have been used under submerged culture conditions, however, their potential usefulness in combination with air-liquid interface...

Nitration of β-Lactoglobulin but Not of Ovomucoid Enhances Anaphylactic Responses in Food Allergic Mice

Background We revealed in previous studies that nitration of food proteins reduces the risk of de novo sensitization in a murine food allergy model. In contrast, in situations with preformed specific IgE antibodies, in vitro experiments suggested an increased capacity of effector cell activation by nitrated food proteins. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the...

Biocompatible micro-sized cell culture chamber for the detection of nanoparticle-induced IL8 promoter activity on a small cell population

In most conventional in vitro toxicological assays, the response of a complete cell population is averaged, and therefore, single-cell responses are not detectable. Such averaging might result in misinterpretations when only individual cells within a population respond to a certain stimulus. Therefore, there is a need for non-invasive in vitro systems to verify the toxicity of...

Shape matters: effects of silver nanospheres and wires on human alveolar epithelial cells

Background In nanotoxicology, the exact role of particle shape, in relation to the composition, on the capacity to induce toxicity is largely unknown. We investigated the toxic and immunotoxic effects of silver wires (length: 1.5 - 25 μm; diameter 100 - 160 nm), spherical silver nanoparticles (30 nm) and silver microparticles (<45 μm) on alveolar epithelial cells (A549). Methods...

The Impact of Nitration on the Structure and Immunogenicity of the Major Birch Pollen Allergen Bet v 1.0101

Allergy prevalence has increased in industrialized countries. One contributing factor could be pollution, which can cause nitration of allergens exogenously (in the air) or endogenously (in inflamed lung tissue). We investigated the impact of nitration on both the structural and immunological behavior of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1.0101 to determine whether nitration...

Nitration of the Pollen Allergen Bet v 1.0101 Enhances the Presentation of Bet v 1-Derived Peptides by HLA-DR on Human Dendritic Cells

Nitration of pollen derived allergens can occur by NO2 and ozone in polluted air and it has already been shown that nitrated major birch (Betula verrucosa) pollen allergen Bet v 1.0101 (Bet v 1) exhibits an increased potency to trigger an immune response. However, the mechanisms by which nitration might contribute to the induction of allergy are still unknown. In this study, we...

Nitration of the Egg-Allergen Ovalbumin Enhances Protein Allergenicity but Reduces the Risk for Oral Sensitization in a Murine Model of Food Allergy

Background Nitration of proteins on tyrosine residues, which can occur due to polluted air under “summer smog” conditions, has been shown to increase the allergic potential of allergens. Since nitration of tyrosine residues is also observed during inflammatory responses, this modification could directly influence protein immunogenicity and might therefore contribute to food...

Problems and challenges in the development and validation of human cell-based assays to determine nanoparticle-induced immunomodulatory effects

Thielecke Victor F Puntes Albert Duschl 0 Diana Boraschi 0 Department of Molecular Biology, University of Salzburg , 5020 Salzburg , Austria Background: With the increasing use of nanomaterials, the need for