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Performance decline in low-stakes educational assessments: different mixture modeling approaches

Background In low-stakes educational assessments, test takers might show a performance decline (PD) on end-of-test items. PD is a concern in educational assessments, especially when groups of students are to be compared on the proficiency variable because item responses gathered in the groups could be differently affected by PD. In order to account for PD, mixture item response...

Multiple imputation of missing covariate values in multilevel models with random slopes: a cautionary note

Multiple imputation (MI) has become one of the main procedures used to treat missing data, but the guidelines from the methodological literature are not easily transferred to multilevel research. For models including random slopes, proper MI can be difficult, especially when the covariate values are partially missing. In the present article, we discuss applications of MI in...

Wie robust sind Struktur- und Niveaumodelle? Wie zeitlich stabil und über Situationen hinweg konstant sind Kompetenzen?

Alexander Robitzsch For many domains of competence the temporal and situational stability is in the focus of empirical research. It is argued that the analysis of the robustness of competence

Kindergartners’ performance in two types of imaginary perspective-taking

This study aimed at gaining further understanding of kindergartners’ performance in imaginary perspective-taking (IPT) by examining whether they can imagine what is visible from a particular point of view (IPT type 1: visibility) and how an object or scene will look from a particular point of view (IPT type 2: appearance). The sample consisted of 4- and 5-year-old kindergartners...

Difficulties in solving context-based PISA mathematics tasks: An analysis of students’ errors

The intention of this study was to clarify students’ difficulties in solving context-based mathematics tasks as used in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). The study was carried out with 362 Indonesian ninth- and tenth-grade students. In the study we used 34 released PISA mathematics tasks including three task types: reproduction, connection, and reflection...

Special education students’ use of indirect addition in solving subtraction problems up to 100—A proof of the didactical potential of an ignored procedure

In this study, we examined special education students’ use of indirect addition (subtraction by adding on) for solving two-digit subtraction problems. Fifty-six students (8- to 12-year-olds), with a mathematical level of end grade 2, participated in the study. They were given a computer-based test on subtraction with different types of problems. Although most students had not...