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Search: authors:"Alfred C Schouten"

16 papers found.
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Reliability of System Identification Techniques to Assess Standing Balance in Healthy Elderly

Objectives System identification techniques have the potential to assess the contribution of the underlying systems involved in standing balance by applying well-known disturbances. We investigated the reliability of standing balance parameters obtained with multivariate closed loop system identification techniques. Methods In twelve healthy elderly balance tests were performed ...

Identification of the contribution of the ankle and hip joints to multi-segmental balance control

Background Human stance involves multiple segments, including the legs and trunk, and requires coordinated actions of both. A novel method was developed that reliably estimates the contribution of the left and right leg (i.e., the ankle and hip joints) to the balance control of individual subjects. Methods The method was evaluated using simulations of a double-inverted pendulum ...

Poor motor function is associated with reduced sensory processing after stroke

The possibility to regain motor function after stroke depends on the intactness of motor and sensory pathways. In this study, we evaluated afferent sensory pathway information transfer and processing after stroke with the coherence between cortical activity and a position perturbation (position-cortical coherence, PCC). Eleven subacute stroke survivors participated in this study. ...

Control of thumb force using surface functional electrical stimulation and muscle load sharing

Background Stroke survivors often have difficulties in manipulating objects with their affected hand. Thumb control plays an important role in object manipulation. Surface functional electrical stimulation (FES) can assist movement. We aim to control the 2D thumb force by predicting the sum of individual muscle forces, described by a sigmoidal muscle recruitment curve and a single ...

Evaluation of EMG, force and joystick as control interfaces for active arm supports

Background The performance capabilities and limitations of control interfaces for the operation of active movement-assistive devices remain unclear. Selecting an optimal interface for an application requires a thorough understanding of the performance of multiple control interfaces. Methods In this study the performance of EMG-, force- and joystick-based control interfaces were ...

Integration of Sensory Force Feedback Is Disturbed in CRPS-Related Dystonia

Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is characterized by pain and disturbed blood flow, temperature regulation and motor control. Approximately 25% of cases develop fixed dystonia. The origin of this movement disorder is poorly understood, although recent insights suggest involvement of disturbed force feedback. Assessment of sensorimotor integration may provide insight into the ...

Electrical Vestibular Stimuli to Enhance Vestibulo-Motor Output and Improve Subject Comfort

Electrical vestibular stimulation is often used to assess vestibulo-motor and postural responses in both clinical and research settings. Stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) is a recently established technique with many advantages over its square-wave counterpart; however, the evoked muscle responses remain relatively small. Although the vestibular-evoked responses can be ...

EMG feedback tasks reduce reflexive stiffness during force and position perturbations

Force and position perturbations are widely applied to identify muscular and reflexive contributions to posture maintenance of the arm. Both task instruction (force vs. position) and the inherently linked perturbation type (i.e., force perturbations-position task and position perturbations-force tasks) affect these contributions and their mutual balance. The goal of this study is ...

Relating reflex gain modulation in posture control to underlying neural network properties using a neuromusculoskeletal model

During posture control, reflexive feedback allows humans to efficiently compensate for unpredictable mechanical disturbances. Although reflexes are involuntary, humans can adapt their reflexive settings to the characteristics of the disturbances. Reflex modulation is commonly studied by determining reflex gains: a set of parameters that quantify the contributions of Ia, Ib and II ...

Fixed Dystonia in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: a Descriptive and Computational Modeling Approach

Background Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) may occur after trauma, usually to one limb, and is characterized by pain and disturbed blood flow, temperature regulation and motor control. Approximately 25% of cases develop fixed dystonia. Involvement of dysfunctional GABAergic interneurons has been suggested, however the mechanisms that underpin fixed dystonia are still unknown. ...

A rigorous model of reflex function indicates that position and force feedback are flexibly tuned to position and force tasks

This study aims to quantify the separate contributions of muscle force feedback, muscle spindle activity and co-contraction to the performance of voluntary tasks (“reduce the influence of perturbations on maintained force or position”). Most human motion control studies either isolate only one contributor, or assume that relevant reflexive feedback pathways during voluntary ...

Tizanidine does not affect the linear relation of stretch duration to the long latency M2 response of m. flexor carpi radialis

The long latency M2 electromyographic response of a suddenly stretched active muscle is stretch duration dependent of which the nature is unclear. We investigated the influence of the group II afferent blocker tizanidine on M2 response characteristics of the m. flexor carpi radialis (FCR). M2 response magnitude and eliciting probability in a group of subjects receiving 4 mg of ...

Analysis of reflex modulation with a biologically realistic neural network

Arno H. A. Stienen Alfred C. Schouten Jasper Schuurmans Frans C. T. van der Helm Action Editor: Karen Sigvardt In this study, a neuromusculoskeletal model was built to give insight into the

Muscle weakness and lack of reflex gain adaptation predominate during post-stroke posture control of the wrist

Background Instead of hyper-reflexia as sole paradigm, post-stroke movement disorders are currently considered the result of a complex interplay between neuronal and muscular properties, modified by level of activity. We used a closed loop system identification technique to quantify individual contributors to wrist joint stiffness during an active posture task. Methods Continuous ...

The monosynaptic Ia afferent pathway can largely explain the stretch duration effect of the long latency M2 response

Sudden stretch of active muscle typically results in two characteristic electromyographic responses: the short latency M1 and the long latency M2. The M1 response originates from the monosynaptic Ia afferent reflex pathway. The M2 response is less well understood and is likely a compound response to different afferent inputs mediated by spinal and transcortical pathways. In this ...