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Systematic literature review of built environment effects on physical activity and active transport – an update and new findings on health equity

Evidence is mounting to suggest a causal relationship between the built environment and people’s physical activity behaviours, particularly active transport. The evidence base has been hindered to date by restricted consideration of cost and economic factors associated with built environment interventions, investigation of socioeconomic or ethnic differences in intervention...

Systematic literature review of built environment effects on physical activity and active transport – an update and new findings on health equity

Evidence is mounting to suggest a causal relationship between the built environment and people’s physical activity behaviours, particularly active transport. The evidence base has been hindered to date by restricted consideration of cost and economic factors associated with built environment interventions, investigation of socioeconomic or ethnic differences in intervention...

County-level heat vulnerability of urban and rural residents in Tibet, China

Background Tibet is especially vulnerable to climate change due to the relatively rapid rise of temperature over past decades. The effects on mortality and morbidity of extreme heat in Tibet have been examined in previous studies; no heat adaptation initiatives have yet been implemented. We estimated heat vulnerability of urban and rural populations in 73 Tibetan counties and...

Internal living environment and respiratory disease in children: findings from the Growing Up in New Zealand longitudinal child cohort study

Alistair Woodward 0 Rajneeta Saraf Sarah Berry Polly Atatoa Carr Susan M. B. Morton Cameron C. Grant 0 Section of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Population Health, University of Auckland , Private

Heat-Attributable Deaths between 1992 and 2009 in Seoul, South Korea

Background Climate change may significantly affect human health. The possible effects of high ambient temperature must be better understood, particularly in terms of certain diseases’ sensitivity to heat (as reflected in relative risks [RR]) and the consequent disease burden (number or fraction of cases attributable to high temperatures), in order to manage the threat. Purpose...

Atrial fibrillation and cycling: six year follow-up of the Taupo bicycle study

Background Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia, and the incidence of AF is increased markedly among elite athletes. It is not clear how lesser levels of physical activity in the general population influence AF. We asked whether participation in the Taupo Cycle Challenge was associated with increased hospital admissions due to AF, and within...

What Influences the Association between Previous and Future Crashes among Cyclists? A Propensity Score Analysis

Background It is known that experience of a previous crash is related to incidence of future crashes in a cohort of New Zealand cyclists. This paper investigated if the strength of such association differed by crash involvement propensity and by the need for medical care in the previous crash. Methods The Taupo Bicycle Study involved 2590 adult cyclists recruited in 2006 and...

The role of multilevel factors in geographic differences in bicycle crash risk: a prospective cohort study

Sandar Tin Tin 0 Alistair Woodward 0 Shanthi Ameratunga 0 0 Section of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Population Health, University of Auckland , Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 , New

Completeness and accuracy of crash outcome data in a cohort of cyclists: a validation study

Background Bicycling, despite its health and other benefits, raises safety concerns for many people. However, reliable information on bicycle crash injury is scarce as current statistics rely on a single official database of limited quality. This paper evaluated the completeness and accuracy of crash data collected from multiple sources in a prospective cohort study involving...

Explanations adequate for public health

reasons for differences between populations because it fails to Alistair Woodward, Professor and Head of School of Population Health predict disease in individuals? A clinician might say yes, but I expect

On the estimation of heat-intensity and heat-duration effects in time series models of temperature-related mortality in Stockholm, Sweden

Alistair Woodward 1 0 Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health, Umea University , Umea , Sweden 1 School of Population Health, University of Auckland , Auckland , New

Increasing active travel: aims, methods and baseline measures of a quasi-experimental study

Background Policy advisers are seeking robust evidence on the effectiveness of measures, such as promoting walking and cycling, that potentially offer multiple benefits, including enhanced health through physical activity, alongside reductions in energy use, traffic congestion and carbon emissions. This paper outlines the ‘ACTIVE’ study, designed to test whether the Model...

Injuries to pedal cyclists on New Zealand roads, 1988-2007

Background The risk of injury is one of the major barriers to engaging in cycling. We investigated exposure-based rates and profiles of traffic injuries sustained by pedal cyclists that resulted in death or hospital inpatient treatment in New Zealand, one of the most car dependent countries. Methods Pedal cyclist traffic injuries were identified from the Mortality Collection and...

Temporal, seasonal and weather effects on cycle volume: an ecological study

Background Cycling has the potential to provide health, environmental and economic benefits but the level of cycling is very low in New Zealand and many other countries. Adverse weather is often cited as a reason why people do not cycle. This study investigated temporal and seasonal variability in cycle volume and its association with weather in Auckland, New Zealand's largest...

Rapid warming in Tibet, China: public perception, response and coping resources in urban Lhasa

Background Tibet, average altitude more than 4,000 meters, is warming faster than anywhere else in China. The increase in temperatures may aggravate existing health problems and lead to the emergence of new risks. However, there are no actions being taken at present to protect population health due to limited understanding about the range and magnitude of health effects of...

Cycling and walking to work in New Zealand, 1991-2006: regional and individual differences, and pointers to effective interventions

Background Active commuting increases levels of physical activity and is more likely to be adopted and sustained than exercise programmes. Despite the potential health, environmental, social and economic benefits, cycling and walking are increasingly marginal modes of transport in many countries. This paper investigated regional and individual differences in cycling and walking...

Mosquitoes established in Lhasa city, Tibet, China

Background In 2009, residents of Lhasa city, Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR), China reported large numbers of mosquitoes and bites from these insects. It is unclear whether this was a new phenomenon, which species were involved, and whether these mosquitoes had established themselves in the local circumstances. Methods The present study was undertaken in six urban sites of...

Mortality among Lifelong Nonsmokers Exposed to Secondhand Smoke at Home: Cohort Data and Sensitivity Analyses

Evidence is growing that secondhand smoke can cause death from several diseases. The association between household exposure to secondhand smoke and disease-specific mortality was examined in two New Zealand cohorts of lifelong nonsmokers (“never smokers”) aged 45–77 years. Individual census records from 1981 and 1996 were anonymously and probabilistically linked with mortality...

The INTERPHONE study: design, epidemiological methods, and description of the study population

The very rapid worldwide increase in mobile phone use in the last decade has generated considerable interest in the possible health effects of exposure to radio frequency (RF) fields. A multinational case–control study, INTERPHONE, was set-up to investigate whether mobile phone use increases the risk of cancer and, more specifically, whether the RF fields emitted by mobile phones...