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Establishing a library of resources to help people understand key concepts in assessing treatment claims—The “Critical thinking and Appraisal Resource Library” (CARL)

-resources. (DOCX) Author Contributions Conceptualization: John C. Castle, Iain Chalmers, Patricia Atkinson, Douglas Badenoch, Andrew D. Oxman, Astrid Austvoll-Dahlgren, L. Kendall Krause, Amanda Burls, Paul ... Austvoll-Dahlgren, Lena Nordheim, L. Kendall Krause, Paola Mosconi, Tammy Hoffmann, Leila Cusack, Loai Albarqouni. Methodology: John C. Castle, Iain Chalmers, Douglas Badenoch, Andrew D. Oxman, Astrid

Helping people make well-informed decisions about health care: old and new challenges to achieving the aim of the Cochrane Collaboration

The aim of the Cochrane Collaboration is to help people make well-informed decisions about health care by preparing, maintaining and promoting the accessibility of systematic reviews of the effects of health care interventions. This aim is as relevant now as it was 20 years ago, when the Cochrane Collaboration was established. Substantial progress has been made toward addressing...

Feasibility of a rapid response mechanism to meet policymakers� urgent needs for research evidence about health systems in a low income country: a case study

Objectives Despite the recognition of the importance of evidence-informed health policy and practice, there are still barriers to translating research findings into policy and practice. The present study aimed to establish the feasibility of a rapid response mechanism, a knowledge translation strategy designed to meet policymakers� urgent needs for evidence about health systems...

Tailored interventions to implement recommendations for elderly patients with depression in primary care: a study protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial

Background The prevalence of depression is high and the elderly have an increased risk of developing chronic course. International data suggest that depression in the elderly is under-recognised, the latency before clinicians provide a treatment plan is longer and elderly patients with depression are not offered psychotherapy to the same degree as younger patients. Although...

Policymakers’ and other stakeholders’ perceptions of key considerations for health system decisions and the presentation of evidence to inform those considerations: an international survey

Background The DECIDE framework was developed to support evidence-informed health system decisions through evidence summaries tailored to health policymakers. The objective of this study was to determine policymakers’ perceptions regarding the criteria in the DECIDE framework and how best to summarise and present evidence to support health system decisions. Methods We conducted...

SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 8: Deciding how much confidence to place in a systematic review

This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. The reliability of systematic reviews of the effects of health interventions is variable. Consequently, policymakers and others need to assess how much confidence can be placed in such evidence. The use of...

SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 3: Setting priorities for supporting evidence-informed policymaking

Oxman 1 Simon Lewin 0 Atle Fretheim 3 0 Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services , P.O. Box 7004, St. Olavs plass, N-0130 Oslo , Norway; Health Systems Research Unit, Medical Research Council

SUPPORT Tools for Evidence-informed Policymaking in health 18: Planning monitoring and evaluation of policies

This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. The term monitoring is commonly used to describe the process of systematically collecting data to inform policymakers, managers and other stakeholders whether a new policy or programme is being implemented in...

SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 17: Dealing with insufficient research evidence

This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. In this article, we address the issue of decision making in situations in which there is insufficient evidence at hand. Policymakers often have insufficient evidence to know with certainty what the impacts of a...

SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 16: Using research evidence in balancing the pros and cons of policies

This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. In this article, we address the use of evidence to inform judgements about the balance between the pros and cons of policy and programme options. We suggest five questions that can be considered when making...

SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 15: Engaging the public in evidence-informed policymaking

This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. In this article, we address strategies to inform and engage the public in policy development and implementation. The importance of engaging the public (both patients and citizens) at all levels of health systems...

SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 12: Finding and using research evidence about resource use and costs

This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. In this article, we address considerations about resource use and costs. The consequences of a policy or programme option for resource use differ from other impacts (both in terms of benefits and harms) in...

SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 10: Taking equity into consideration when assessing the findings of a systematic review

This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. In this article we address considerations of equity. Inequities can be defined as "differences in health which are not only unnecessary and avoidable but, in addition, are considered unfair and unjust". These...

SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP)

This article is the Introduction to a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. Knowing how to find and use research evidence can help policymakers and those who support them to do their jobs better and more efficiently. Each article in this series presents a proposed tool that...

A checklist for identifying determinants of practice: A systematic review and synthesis of frameworks and taxonomies of factors that prevent or enable improvements in healthcare professional practice

Signe A Flottorp 0 1 Andrew D Oxman 1 Jane Krause Nyokabi R Musila Michel Wensing Maciek Godycki-Cwirko Richard Baker Martin P Eccles 0 Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care

International variation in prescribing antihypertensive drugs: Its extent and possible explanations

Background Inexpensive antihypertensive drugs are at least as effective and safe as more expensive drugs. Overuse of newer, more expensive antihypertensive drugs is a poor use of resources. The potential savings are substantial, but vary across countries, in large part due to differences in prescribing patterns. We wanted to describe prescribing patterns of antihypertensive drugs...

Rational Prescribing in Primary care (RaPP): process evaluation of an intervention to improve prescribing of antihypertensive and cholesterol-lowering drugs

Atle Fretheim 0 Kari Hvelsrud 0 Andrew D Oxman 0 0 Address: Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services , PB 7004 St. Olavs plass, N-0130 Oslo , Norway Background: A randomised trial of a

Rational Prescribing in Primary Care (RaPP): Economic Evaluation of an Intervention to Improve Professional Practice

Background Interventions designed to narrow the gap between research findings and clinical practice may be effective, but also costly. Economic evaluations are necessary to judge whether such interventions are worth the effort. We have evaluated the economic effects of a tailored intervention to support the implementation of guidelines for the use of antihypertensive and...

SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 9: Assessing the applicability of the findings of a systematic review

Oxman 1 Nathan M Souza 0 Simon Lewin 5 Russell L Gruen 4 Atle Fretheim 3 0 Health Research Methodology PhD Program and Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics , 1200 Main St. West, HSC