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12 papers found.
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Spread of entanglement in a Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev chain

We study the spread of Rényi entropy between two halves of a Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev (SYK) chain of Majorana fermions, prepared in a thermofield double (TFD) state. The SYK chain model is a model of chaotic many-body systems, which describes a one-dimensional lattice of Majorana fermions, with spatially local random quartic interaction. We find that for integer Rényi index n > 1, the ...

Quantum critical response: from conformal perturbation theory to holography

We discuss dynamical response functions near quantum critical points, allowing for both a finite temperature and detuning by a relevant operator. When the quantum critical point is described by a conformal field theory (CFT), conformal perturbation theory and the operator product expansion can be used to fix the first few leading terms at high frequencies. Knowledge of the high ...

Magnetoresistance in relativistic hydrodynamics without anomalies

We present expressions for the magnetoconductivity and the magnetoresistance of a strongly interacting metal in 3 + 1 dimensions, derivable from relativistic hydrodynamics. Such an approach is suitable for ultraclean metals with emergent Lorentz invariance. When this relativistic fluid contains chiral anomalies, it is known to exhibit longitudinal negative magnetoresistance. We ...

Charge diffusion and the butterfly effect in striped holographic matter

Recently, it has been proposed that the butterfly velocity — a speed at which quantum information propagates — may provide a fundamental bound on diffusion constants in dirty incoherent metals. We analytically compute the charge diffusion constant and the butterfly velocity in charge-neutral holographic matter with long wavelength “hydrodynamic” disorder in a single spatial ...

Conductivity of a strange metal: from holography to memory functions

We study the electrical response of a wide class of strange metal phases without quasiparticles at finite temperature and charge density, with explicitly broken translational symmetry, using holography. The low frequency electrical conductivity exhibits a Drude peak, so long as momentum relaxation is slow. The relaxation time and the direct current conductivity are exactly equal to ...

Conductivity bounds in probe brane models

We discuss upper and lower bounds on the electrical conductivity of finite temperature strongly coupled quantum field theories, holographically dual to probe brane models, within linear response. In a probe limit where disorder is introduced entirely through an inhomogeneous background charge density, we find simple lower and upper bounds on the electrical conductivity in arbitrary ...

Anti-Hepatitis C Virus T-Cell Immunity in the Context of Multiple Exposures to the Virus

Characterisation of Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific CD8+ T-cell responses in the context of multiple HCV exposures is critical to identify broadly protective immune responses necessary for an effective HCV vaccine against the different HCV genotypes. However, host and viral genetic diversity complicates vaccine development. To compensate for the observed variation in circulating ...

Acyclovir Has Low but Detectable Influence on HLA-B*57:01 Specificity without Inducing Hypersensitivity

Immune mediated adverse drug reactions (IM-ADRs) remain a significant source of patient morbidity that have more recently been shown to be associated with specific class I and/or II human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles. Abacavir-induced hypersensitivity syndrome is a CD8+ T cell dependent IM-ADR that is exclusively mediated by HLA-B*57:01. We and others have previously shown that ...

Abacavir-Reactive Memory T Cells Are Present in Drug Naïve Individuals

Background Fifty-five percent of individuals with HLA-B*57:01 exposed to the antiretroviral drug abacavir develop a hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) that has been attributed to naïve T-cell responses to neo-antigen generated by the drug. Immunologically confirmed abacavir HSR can manifest clinically in less than 48 hours following first exposure suggesting that, at least in some ...

Genetic Variations in IL28B and Allergic Disease in Children

Environmental changes affecting the relationship between the developing immune system and microbial exposure have been implicated in the epidemic rise of allergic disease in developed countries. While early developmental differences in T cell function are well-recognised, there is now emerging evidence that this is related to developmental differences in innate immune function. In ...

Constrained Pattern of Viral Evolution in Acute and Early HCV Infection Limits Viral Plasticity

Cellular immune responses during acute Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV infection are a known correlate of infection outcome. Viral adaptation to these responses via mutation(s) within CD8+ T-cell epitopes allows these viruses to subvert host immune control. This study examined HCV evolution in 21 HCV genotype 1-infected subjects to characterise the level of viral adaptation during ...

Analysis of FOXP3+ Regulatory T Cells That Display Apparent Viral Antigen Specificity during Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection

We reported previously that a proportion of natural CD25+ cells isolated from the PBMC of HCV patients can further upregulate CD25 expression in response to HCV peptide stimulation in vitro, and proposed that virus-specific regulatory T cells (Treg) were primed and expanded during the disease. Here we describe epigenetic analysis of the FOXP3 locus in HCV-responsive natural CD25+ ...