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Search: authors:"Anita H. J. van den Biggelaar"

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Pneumococcal responses are similar in Papua New Guinean children aged 3-5 years vaccinated in infancy with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine with or without prior pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, or without pneumococcal vaccination

their families. Author Contributions Conceptualization: Peter C. Richmond, Michael P. Alpers, William S. Pomat, Deborah Lehmann. Data curation: Anita H. J. van den Biggelaar, Angela Fuery, Deborah ... Lehmann. Formal analysis: Anita H. J. van den Biggelaar, Denise Anderson. Funding acquisition: Peter C. Richmond, William S. Pomat, Deborah Lehmann. Investigation: Anita H. J. van den Biggelaar, Angela

Rationale and methods of a randomized controlled trial of immunogenicity, safety and impact on carriage of pneumococcal conjugate and polysaccharide vaccines in infants in Papua New Guinea

Background Children in third-world settings including Papua New Guinea (PNG) experience early onset of carriage with a broad range of pneumococcal serotypes, resulting in a high incidence of severe pneumococcal disease and deaths in the first 2 years of life. Vaccination trials in high endemicity settings are needed to provide evidence and guidance on optimal strategies to...

A longitudinal study of natural antibody development to pneumococcal surface protein A families 1 and 2 in Papua New Guinean Highland children: a cohort study

Background Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA), a conserved virulence factor essential for Streptococcus pneumoniae attachment to upper respiratory tract (URT) epithelia, is a potential vaccine candidate for preventing colonisation. Methods This cohort study was conducted in the Asaro Valley in the Eastern Highlands Province of Papua New Guinea, of which Goroka town is the...

Ontogeny of Toll-Like and NOD-Like Receptor-Mediated Innate Immune Responses in Papua New Guinean Infants

Studies addressing the ontogeny of the innate immune system in early life have reported mainly on Toll-like receptor (TLR) responses in infants living in high-income countries, with little or even no information on other pattern recognition receptors or on early life innate immune responses in children living under very different environmental conditions in less-developed parts...

Safety and Immunogenicity of Neonatal Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination in Papua New Guinean Children: A Randomised Controlled Trial

Background Approximately 826,000 children, mostly young infants, die annually from invasive pneumococcal disease. A 6-10-14-week schedule of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is efficacious but neonatal PCV may provide earlier protection and better coverage. We conducted an open randomized controlled trial in Papua New Guinea to compare safety, immunogenicity and priming for...

Selection for Genetic Variation Inducing Pro-Inflammatory Responses under Adverse Environmental Conditions in a Ghanaian Population

Background Chronic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic age-associated, degenerative diseases. Pro-inflammatory host responses that are deleterious later in life may originate from evolutionary selection for genetic variation mediating resistance to infectious diseases under adverse environmental conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings In the Upper-East...

Immune Responses Induced by Repeated Treatment Do Not Result in Protective Immunity to Schistosoma haematobium: Interleukin (IL)–5 and IL-10 Responses

The hypothesis that repeated treatments enhance acquired immunity against schistosomes by stimulating strong T helper 2 responses was tested. Schistosoma haematobium–infected schoolchildren were monitored for 3 years. During the first 2 years, children who did not receive chemotherapy were compared with those treated once or repeatedly. After specific immune responses were...

Chronic Schistosomiasis: Dendritic Cells Generated from Patients Can Overcome Antigen-Specific T Cell Hyporesponsiveness

Chronic infection with helminths is associated with down-regulated antigen-specific T cell responses. In order to determine whether schistosome-specific T cells are present, yet functionally unresponsive, or absent in the periphery of chronically infected persons, autologous granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and dendritic cells (DC) derived from interleukin (IL)-4...

Responses to Toll-Like Receptor Ligands in Children Living in Areas Where Schistosome Infections Are Endemic

To study the effect of repeated challenge of the innate immune system with pathogen-associated molecular patterns, cytokine responses to schistosomal lipids and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were analyzed in schoolchildren living in an area in Gabon where schistosomiasis, a helminth infection that is chronic in nature, is endemic. A schistosomal phosphatidylserine (PS...

Long-Term Treatment of Intestinal Helminths Increases Mite Skin-Test Reactivity in Gabonese Schoolchildren

Background. Several studies have shown an inverse association between helminth infections and atopy, but none have clearly established that the pathogens themselves, rather than other associated factors, cause the suppression of atopy. To show a direct link, prospective intervention studies are required. Methods. A randomized, controlled trial was performed to study whether...