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Insights into degradation pathways of oxidized anhydroglucose units in cellulose by β-alkoxy-elimination: a combined theoretical and experimental approach

Depolymerization of cellulose starting from an oxidized anhydroglucose unit through β-alkoxy-elimination, triggered by alkaline media, is one of the key reactions responsible for cellulose aging. This study investigates the detailed mechanisms for the chain cleavage by a combination of experimental and quantum chemical methods. Three model compounds for oxidized anhydroglucose...

Critical evaluation of approaches toward mass deacidification of paper by dispersed particles

Mass deacidification has been an important topic in cellulose science and will continue to be a critical issue as long as acidic books and paper-based materials are—a often major—part of library and archive stocks. Different means are available to judge the result of a deacidification treatment and to address its sustainability and efficacy. The present study compares...

A cautionary note on thermal runaway reactions in mixtures of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids and N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide

N-Methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) cannot be completely separated by extraction from mixtures with common 1,3-dialkylimidazolium ionic liquids (ILs) due to strong ionic interactions between the two components. At elevated temperatures, above approx. 90 °C, especially under dry conditions and in the presence of acid, alkylating or acylating agents, remaining NMMO in ILs tends to...

Drying of a cellulose II gel: effect of physical modification and redispersibility in water

The agglomeration of cellulosic materials upon drying, often called hornification, causes a reduction of water retention, among other undesired effects. It is one of the main issues in industrial cellulose processing, especially with regard to nanocelluloses. As a consequence, high transportation and storage costs arise since nanocelluloses need to remain in aqueous suspensions...

Chromophores from hexeneuronic acids: identification of HexA-derived chromophores

Hexeneuronic acids (HexA) have long been known as triggers for discoloration processes in glucuronoxylan-containing cellulosic pulps. They are formed under the conditions of pulping from 4-O-methylglucuronic acid residues, and are removed in an “A stage” along the bleaching sequences, which mainly comprises acidic washing treatments. The chemical structures of HexA-derived...

Chromophores from hexeneuronic acids (HexA): synthesis of model compounds and primary degradation intermediates

Hexeneuronic acid (HexA) is formed under pulping conditions from 4-O-methyl-glucuronic acid residues in xylans by methanol elimination. It is usually removed by an acidic washing treatment (A-stage) within the pulp bleaching sequence. Hexeneuronic acid has long been recognized as a source of color generation in pulps, but the chemical structure of the actual chromophoric...

Chromophores from hexeneuronic acids: chemical behavior under peroxide bleaching conditions

Hexeneuronic acids (HexA) are a major cause of discoloration (yellowing/brightness reversion) in pulps from xylan-containing wood, being generated from the xylan’s 4-O-methylglucuronic acid residues. The HexA-derived chromophores, whose identification and structure confirmation have been described in the previous part of this series (Rosenau et al. in Cellulose, 2017), were...

Surface properties and porosity of highly porous, nanostructured cellulose II particles

Recently, a new member of the nanocellulose family was introduced, a cellulose II gel consisting of nanostructured and spherical particles. In this study, we compared two different drying techniques to obtain highly porous powders from this gel with preserved meso- and macroporous nanostructure: first, freeze-drying after solvent exchange to tBuOH and second, supercritical drying...