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HIV Infection Is Not Associated with Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Brazil: A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the INI/ELSA-Brasil Study

Background Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) has been used as an early marker of atherosclerotic disease in the general population. Recently its role among HIV-infected patients has been questioned. To date, no Brazilian study has compared cIMT in respect to HIV status. Methods We compared data from 535 patients actively followed in a prospective cohort in Rio de Janeiro (HIV...

Association of IL10 Polymorphisms and Leprosy: A Meta-Analysis

Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease that depends on the interplay of several factors. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in host immune related genes have been consistently suggested as participants in susceptibility towards disease. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a crucial immunomodulatory cytokine in mycobacterial pathogenesis and especially the -819C>T SNP (rs1800871) has...

Long-Term CD4+ Cell Count in Response to Combination Antiretroviral Therapy

Objective There is a continuous debate on how to adequately evaluate long-term CD4+ cell count in response to combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Our study evaluated the long-term CD4+ cell count response (up to ten years) after initiation of ART and described the differences in the CD4+ cell count response...

Traditional Risk Factors Are More Relevant than HIV-Specific Ones for Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (cIMT) in a Brazilian Cohort of HIV-Infected Patients

Background Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) had a dramatic impact on the mortality profile in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals and increased their life-expectancy. Conditions associated with the aging process have been diagnosed more frequently among HIV-infected patients, particularly, cardiovascular diseases. Methods Patients followed in the...

Continuous Increase of Cardiovascular Diseases, Diabetes, and Non-HIV Related Cancers as Causes of Death in HIV-Infected Individuals in Brazil: An Analysis of Nationwide Data

Introduction After antiretroviral therapy (ART) became available, there was a decline in the number of deaths in persons infected with HIV. Thereafter, there was a decrease in the proportion of deaths attributed to opportunistic infections and an increase in the proportion of deaths attributed to chronic comorbidities. Herein we extend previous observations from a nationwide...

Pre-miR-146a (rs2910164 G>C) Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Is Genetically and Functionally Associated with Leprosy

Mycobacterium leprae infects macrophages and Schwann cells inducing a gene expression program to facilitate its replication and progression to disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of gene expression and could be involved during the infection. To address the genetic influence of miRNAs in leprosy, we enrolled 1,098 individuals and conducted a case-control analysis in...

Changing Mortality Profile among HIV-Infected Patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Shifting from AIDS to Non-AIDS Related Conditions in the HAART Era

Introduction We describe temporal trends in the mortality rates and factors associated with AIDS and non-AIDS related mortality at the Evandro Chagas Clinical Research Institute (IPEC), Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ). Methods Adult patients enrolling from 1986 through 2009 with a minimum follow up of 60 days were included. Vital status was exhaustively checked using patients...

Increase in Non-AIDS Related Conditions as Causes of Death among HIV-Infected Individuals in the HAART Era in Brazil

BackgroundIn 1996, Brazil became the first developing country to provide free and universal access to HAART. Although a decrease in overall mortality has been documented, there are no published data on the impact of HAART on causes of death among HIV-infected individuals in Brazil. We assessed temporal trends of mortality due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD), diabetes mellitus...

Toll-like Receptor 1 N248S Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Is Associated With Leprosy Risk and Regulates Immune Activation During Mycobacterial Infection

Conflicting findings about the association between leprosy and TLR1 variants N248S and I602S have been reported. Here, we performed case-control and family based studies, followed by replication in 2 case-control populations from Brazil, involving 3162 individuals. Results indicated an association between TLR1 248S and leprosy in the case-control study (SS genotype odds ratio [OR...

AIDS-Related Tuberculosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Background We studied the incidence of tuberculosis, AIDS, AIDS deaths and AIDS-TB co-infection at the population level in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil where universal and free access to combination antiretroviral therapy has been available since 1997. Methodology/Principal Findings This was a retrospective surveillance database match of Rio de Janeiro databases from 1995–2004...

TNF -308G>A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Is Associated With Leprosy Among Brazilians: A Genetic Epidemiology Assessment, Meta-Analysis, and Functional Study

. Parelli 1 5 Andrea Alter 7 Jorge Lus Salgado 4 Elizabeth P. Sampaio 2 Adalberto R. Santos 4 Maria Leide WR Oliveira 3 Euzenir N. Sarno 2 Erwin Schurr 7 Marcelo T. Mira 6 Antonio G. Pacheco 8 Milton O

Validation of a Hierarchical Deterministic Record-Linkage Algorithm Using Data From 2 Different Cohorts of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Persons and Mortality Databases in Brazil

Arouca, Fundaxca˜o Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Antonio G. Pacheco); Programa de Computaxca˜o Cient´ıfica, Fundaxca˜o Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Antonio G. Pacheco); Infectious Diseases ... Epidemiology Research Unit, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (Antonio G. Pacheco, Suely H. Tuboi, Lee H. Harrison); School of Medicine, University of