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34 papers found.
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Harms associated with taking nalmefene for substance use and impulse control disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

Importance Nalmefene is a newly approved drug for alcohol use disorder, but the risk of harms has not been evaluated from empirical trial evidence. Objective To assess the harm of nalmefene administered to individuals diagnosed with substance use or impulse control disorders by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Data sources A search...

Milk and dairy consumption and risk of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality: dose–response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

With a growing number of prospective cohort studies, an updated dose–response meta-analysis of milk and dairy products with all-cause mortality, coronary heart disease (CHD) or cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been conducted. PubMed, Embase and Scopus were searched for articles published up to September 2016. Random-effect meta-analyses with summarised dose–response data were...

Resistant starch and protein intake enhances fat oxidation and feelings of fullness in lean and overweight/obese women

Juul Holst 1 Arne Astrup 6 Michael J. Ormsbee 4 5 Scott Connelly 3 Paul J. Arciero 0 0 Human Nutrition and Metabolism Laboratory, Department of Health and Exercise Sciences, Skidmore College , 815 North

Network Analysis of Metabolite GWAS Hits: Implication of CPS1 and the Urea Cycle in Weight Maintenance

Background and Scope Weight loss success is dependent on the ability to refrain from regaining the lost weight in time. This feature was shown to be largely variable among individuals, and these differences, with their underlying molecular processes, are diverse and not completely elucidated. Altered plasma metabolites concentration could partly explain weight loss maintenance...

Comparison of Results from Different Imputation Techniques for Missing Data from an Anti-Obesity Drug Trial

, the producer of topiramate, to conduct the clinical trial from which the data for this paper originated (see reference 10). Arne Astrup is currently consultant or member of advisory boards for a number

Variation in extracellular matrix genes is associated with weight regain after weight loss in a sex-specific manner

ethical standards Conflict of interest Nadia Roumans, Roel Vink, Marij Gielen, Maurice Zeegers, Claus Holst, Ping Wang, Arne Astrup, Wim H. Saris, Marleen A. van Baak, and Edwin C.M. Mariman declare that

Seasonal variation in objectively measured physical activity, sedentary time, cardio-respiratory fitness and sleep duration among 8–11 year-old Danish children: a repeated-measures study

Background Understanding fluctuations in lifestyle indicators is important to identify relevant time periods to intervene in order to promote a healthy lifestyle; however, objective assessment of multiple lifestyle indicators has never been done using a repeated-measures design. The primary aim was, therefore, to examine between-season and within-week variation in physical...

High Fat, Low Carbohydrate Diet Limit Fear and Aggression in Göttingen Minipigs

High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration...

Effect of trans Fatty Acid Intake on LC-MS and NMR Plasma Profiles

Background The consumption of high levels of industrial trans fatty acids (TFA) has been related to cardiovascular disease, diabetes and sudden cardiac death but the causal mechanisms are not well known. In this study, NMR and LC-MS untargeted metabolomics has been used as an approach to explore the impact of TFA intake on plasma metabolites. Methodology/Principal Findings In a...

Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid in Whole Blood Are Differentially and Sex-Specifically Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk Markers in 8–11-Year-Old Danish Children

n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids improve cardiovascular risk markers in adults. These effects may differ between eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20∶5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22∶6n-3), but we lack evidence in children. Using baseline data from the OPUS School Meal Study we 1) investigated associations between EPA and DHA in whole blood and early cardiometabolic...

Low Physical Activity Level and Short Sleep Duration Are Associated with an Increased Cardio-Metabolic Risk Profile: A Longitudinal Study in 8-11 Year Old Danish Children

Background As cardio-metabolic risk tracks from childhood to adulthood, a better understanding of the relationship between movement behaviors (physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleep) and cardio-metabolic risk in childhood may aid in preventing metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adulthood. Objective To examine independent and combined cross-sectional and longitudinal...

Body Characteristics, Dietary Protein and Body Weight Regulation. Reconciling Conflicting Results from Intervention and Observational Studies?

Jytte Halkjaer Wim H. M. Saris Arne Astrup Thorkild I. A. Srensen Francois Blachier, National Institute of Agronomic Research, France Background/Objectives: Physiological evidence indicates that high

Interaction between Genetic Predisposition to Adiposity and Dietary Protein in Relation to Subsequent Change in Body Weight and Waist Circumference

Background Genetic predisposition to adiposity may interact with dietary protein in relation to changes of anthropometry. Objective To investigate the interaction between genetic predisposition to higher body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRBMI) and dietary protein in relation to subsequent change in body weight (ΔBW) or change...

Flaxseed dietary fibers lower cholesterol and increase fecal fat excretion, but magnitude of effect depend on food type

the study All read and approved the final manuscript. Competing interests The University of Copenhagen has a patent pending concerning the present research and Arne Astrup is a consultant for Basic

Serum Levels of Human MIC-1/GDF15 Vary in a Diurnal Pattern, Do Not Display a Profile Suggestive of a Satiety Factor and Are Related to BMI

The TGF-b superfamily cytokine MIC-1/GDF15 circulates in the blood of healthy humans. Its levels rise substantially in cancer and other diseases and this may sometimes lead to development of an anorexia/cachexia syndrome. This is mediated by a direct action of MIC-1/GDF15 on feeding centres in the hypothalamus and brainstem. More recent studies in germline gene deleted mice also...

Copenhagen study of overweight patients with coronary artery disease undergoing low energy diet or interval training: the randomized CUT-IT trial protocol

Background Coronary artery disease (CAD) is accountable for more than 7 million deaths each year according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In a European population 80% of patients diagnosed with CAD are overweight and 31% are obese. Physical inactivity and overweight are major risk factors in CAD, thus central strategies in secondary prevention are increased physical...

High throughput prediction of chylomicron triglycerides in human plasma by nuclear magnetic resonance and chemometrics

Background The lipid content of the chylomicrons is a key biomarker and risk factor of cardiovascular diseases and for the understanding of obesity. A high throughput determination of chylomicrons in human blood plasma is outlined. Methods The new method, which uses a combination of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis and multivariate calibration analysis (chemometrics), is...

Influences of the Common FTO rs9939609 Variant on Inflammatory Markers Throughout a Broad Range of Body Mass Index

Background A recent study reported that the fatness associated A-allele of FTO rs9939609 increased plasma high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels independent of fatness. We aimed to investigate if this gene variant had fatness-independent effects on plasma hs-CRP and 10 additional circulating obesity-related adipokines throughout a broad range of body mass index (BMI...