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A Prospective Study of Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Use and the Risk of Upper Gastrointestinal Cancers

We examined the association of use of multivitamins or single vitamin/mineral supplements with risk of four upper gastrointestinal cancers in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study cohort with 11 years of follow-up. After exclusions, 490,593 persons were included in our analytic cohort and 1780 upper gastrointestinal cancers were accrued. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence...

Models of carcinogenesis: an overview

At least five coherent models of carcinogenesis have been proposed in the history of cancer research in the last century. Model 1 is mainly centered around mutations, and its main focus is on the chemical environment, radiation and viruses. Model 2 has to do mainly with genome instability and it focuses on familiality. Model 3 is based on non-genotoxic mechanisms, and clonal...

Dealing With Dietary Measurement Error in Nutritional Cohort Studies

Dietary measurement error creates serious challenges to reliably discovering new diet–disease associations in nutritional cohort studies. Such error causes substantial underestimation of relative risks and reduction of statistical power for detecting associations. On the basis of data from the Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition Study, we recommend the following approaches to...

Fatherhood and the risk of cardiovascular mortality in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

that the fatherhood status may provide insight into a mans risk of cardiovascular disease and death later in his life. This manuscript is dedicated to Arthur Schatzkin. Authors roles A.S., A.H. and Y.P

Pooled Results From 5 Validation Studies of Dietary Self-Report Instruments Using Recovery Biomarkers for Energy and Protein Intake

We pooled data from 5 large validation studies of dietary self-report instruments that used recovery biomarkers as references to clarify the measurement properties of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour recalls. The studies were conducted in widely differing US adult populations from 1999 to 2009. We report on total energy, protein, and protein density intakes...

Reproductive History and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Postmenopausal Women

Background There are conflicting data regarding the role of sex hormones in colorectal cancer development. Whereas clinical trials data indicate that hormone therapy use reduces the risk of colorectal cancer, data from prospective cohort studies suggest that circulating estrogen levels are positively associated with colorectal cancer risk. A surrogate measure of lifetime estrogen...

Daytime Napping, Nighttime Sleeping, and Parkinson Disease

Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland (Yikyung Park, Arthur Schatzkin); Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland (Aaron

Diabetes and Risk of Parkinson’s Disease

QUN XU PHD YIKYUNG PARK SCD XUEMEI HUANG PHD ALBERT HOLLENBECK PHD AARON BLAIR PHD ARTHUR SCHATZKIN PHD HONGLEI CHEN PHD E p i d e m i o l o g y / H e a l t h OBJECTIVETo investigate the

The Impact on National Death Index Ascertainment of Limiting Submissions to Social Security Administration Death Master File Matches in Epidemiologic Studies of Mortality

Sigurd W. Hermansen Michael F. Leitzmann Arthur Schatzkin Although many epidemiologists use the National Death Index (NDI) as the ''gold standard'' for ascertainment of US mortality, high search ... Death Index; NIH, National Institutes of Health; SSA, Social Security Administration; SSN, Social Security number. Correspondence to Dr. Arthur Schatzkin, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics

Multivitamins, Individual Vitamin and Mineral Supplements, and Risk of Diabetes Among Older U.S. Adults

YIQING SONG SCD QUN XU PHD YIKYUNG PARK SCD ALBERT HOLLENBECK PHD ARTHUR SCHATZKIN PHD HONGLEI CHEN PHD E p i d e m i o l o g y / H e a l t h OBJECTIVE - Understanding the relationship between

Can we use biomarkers in combination with self-reports to strengthen the analysis of nutritional epidemiologic studies?

Identifying diet-disease relationships in nutritional cohort studies is plagued by the measurement error in self-reported intakes. The authors propose using biomarkers known to be correlated with dietary intake, so as to strengthen analyses of diet-disease hypotheses. The authors consider combining self-reported intakes and biomarker levels using principal components, Howe's...

Using Regression Calibration Equations That Combine Self-Reported Intake and Biomarker Measures to Obtain Unbiased Estimates and More Powerful Tests of Dietary Associations

Institute, Bethesda, Maryland (Natasa Tasevska, Nancy Potischman); Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland (Arthur Schatzkin); Department of Ophthalmology

Alcoholic Beverages and Prostate Cancer in a Prospective US Cohort Study

and Genetics, National Can- cer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services , Bethesda, Maryland (Joanne L. Watters, Yikyung Park, Arthur Schatzkin, Demetrius

Gains in Statistical Power From Using a Dietary Biomarker in Combination With Self-reported Intake to Strengthen the Analysis of a Diet-Disease Association: An Example From CAREDS

Laurence S. Freedman Natas a Tasevska Victor Kipnis Arthur Schatzkin Julie Mares Lesley Tinker Nancy Potischman A major problem in detecting diet-disease associations in nutritional cohort studies ... (Laurence S. Freedman); Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland (Natasa Tasevska, Arthur Schatzkin); Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer

Pancreatic Cancer and Exposure to Dietary Nitrate and Nitrite in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

. Ward); Nutritional Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland (Amanda J. Cross, Rachael Z. Stolzenberg-Solomon, Arthur Schatzkin

Waist Circumference as Compared with Body-Mass Index in Predicting Mortality from Specific Causes

Background Whether waist circumference provides clinically meaningful information not delivered by body-mass index regarding prediction of cause-specific death is uncertain. Methods We prospectively examined waist circumference (WC) and body-mass index (BMI) in relation to cause-specific death in 225,712 U.S. women and men. Cox regression was used to estimate relative risks and...

Vitamin E Intake and Risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Pooled Analysis of Data From 5 Prospective Cohort Studies

The authors investigated whether vitamin E intake was associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in the Nurses’ Health Study (1976–2004), the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986–2004), the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort (1992–2004), the Multiethnic Cohort Study (1993–2005), and the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study (1995–2005...

Day Napping and Short Night Sleeping Are Associated With Higher Risk of Diabetes in Older Adults

OBJECTIVE To examine whether day napping or short night sleeping is associated with higher risk of diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a prospective study of hours of day napping and night sleeping assessed in 1996–1997 in relation to diabetes diagnosed between 2000 and 2006 (n = 10,143) among 174,542 participants in the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP Diet...

Effect of smoking status on total energy expenditure

Individuals who smoke generally have a lower body mass index (BMI) than nonsmokers. The relative roles of energy expenditure and energy intake in maintaining the lower BMI, however, remain controversial. We tested the hypothesis that current smokers have higher total energy expenditure than never smokers in 308 adults aged 40-69 years old of which 47 were current smokers. Energy...

Geographic Variation in Colorectal Cancer Survival and the Role of Small-Area Socioeconomic Deprivation: A Multilevel Survival Analysis of the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study Cohort

, Worcester, Massachusetts (Chyke A. Doubeni); Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland (Yikyung Park, Jacqueline M. Major, Barry I. Graubard, Arthur Schatzkin ... Schatzkin 0 0 Forest Park Ave. , Suite 6700, St. Louis, MO 63108 ( Initially submitted November 2, 2010; accepted for publication April 20, 2011. Adverse socioeconomic conditions, at both the individual and