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Minor Immunoreactivity in GDNF-, BDNF-, or NT-3-Treated Substantia Nigra Allografts

Glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) stimulates the survival of dopaminergic neurons. Little is known, however, about the possible immune sequelae of GDNF exposure or of exposure to other putative trophic factors. To address these questions, pieces of mesencephalic tissue, substantia nigra, from 15-day-old donor embryos were transplanted into the anterior chamber of...

IVth International Symposium on Neural Transplantation Transcript of the Closing Discussion (Edited) (Session 44.0)

. Eugene Redmond Jr. Barry J. Hoffer (Co-Chairs) Discussants Eugene Redmond: I think that the sessions have been extremely interesting and provocative. It would be a shame to end the meeting without an

Repositioning drugs for traumatic brain injury - N-acetyl cysteine and Phenserine

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality of both young adults of less than 45 years of age and the elderly, and contributes to about 30% of all injury deaths in the United States of America. Whereas there has been a significant improvement in our understanding of the mechanism that underpin the primary and secondary stages of damage...

Thioredoxin-Mimetic-Peptides Protect Cognitive Function after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI)

Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is recognized as a common injury among children, sportsmen, and elderly population. mTBI lacks visible objective structural brain damage but patients frequently suffer from long-lasting cognitive, behavioral and emotional difficulties associated with biochemical and cellular changes. Currently there is no effective treatment for patients with...

Transiently lowering tumor necrosis factor-α synthesis ameliorates neuronal cell loss and cognitive impairments induced by minimal traumatic brain injury in mice

Background The treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents an unmet medical need, as no effective pharmacological treatment currently exists. The development of such a treatment requires a fundamental understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms that underpin the sequelae resulting from TBI, particularly the ensuing neuronal cell death and cognitive impairments...

Cognitive Impairments Induced by Concussive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Mouse Are Ameliorated by Treatment with Phenserine via Multiple Non-Cholinergic and Cholinergic Mechanisms

Traumatic brain injury (TBI), often caused by a concussive impact to the head, affects an estimated 1.7 million Americans annually. With no approved drugs, its pharmacological treatment represents a significant and currently unmet medical need. In our prior development of the anti-cholinesterase compound phenserine for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, we recognized...

Exendin-4 Ameliorates Traumatic Brain Injury-Induced Cognitive Impairment in Rats

Traumatic brain injury represents a major public health issue that affects 1.7 million Americans each year and is a primary contributing factor (30.5%) of all injury-related deaths in the United States. The occurrence of traumatic brain injury is likely underestimated and thus has been termed “a silent epidemic”. Exendin-4 is a long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist...

Efficacy of N-Acetyl Cysteine in Traumatic Brain Injury

In this study, using two different injury models in two different species, we found that early post-injury treatment with N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) reversed the behavioral deficits associated with the TBI. These data suggest generalization of a protocol similar to our recent clinical trial with NAC in blast-induced mTBI in a battlefield setting [1], to mild concussion from blunt...

Targeted Over-Expression of Glutamate Transporter 1 (GLT-1) Reduces Ischemic Brain Injury in a Rat Model of Stroke

Following the onset of an ischemic brain injury, the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate is released. The excitotoxic effects of glutamate are a major contributor to the pathogenesis of a stroke. The aim of this study was to examine if overexpression of a glutamate transporter (GLT-1) reduces ischemic brain injury in a rat model of stroke. We generated an adeno-associated viral...