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Is substance use associated with HIV cascade outcomes in Latin America?

de Infectologia-Fiocruz, Brazil: Beatriz Grinsztejn, Valdilea Veloso, Paula Luz, Raquel B.De Boni, Sandra Cardoso Wagner, Ruth Friedman, Lara Coelho, Ronaldo Moreira. Universidade Federal de Minas ... . Investigation: Beatriz Grinsztejn, Claudia CorteÂs, Denis Padgett, Eduardo Gotuzzo, Pablo F. BelaunzaraÂn-Zamudio, Peter F. Rebeiro, Stephany N. Duda, Catherine C. McGowan. Methodology: Raquel B. De Boni

Prevalence and predictors for compensated Advanced Chronic Liver Disease (c-ACLD) in patients with chronic Hepatitis Delta Virus (HDV) infection

Objective The study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and predictor factors for compensated advanced chronic liver disease (c-ACLD) in patients with hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) infection. Methods This cross-sectional study included consecutive HDV-infected patients defined by positive anti-HDV. Patients with hepatitis C coinfection, liver transplantation or presence of conditions...

Chronic Hepatitis C: An Overview of Evidence on Epidemiology and Management from a Brazilian Perspective

Chronic hepatitis C remains one of the main causes of chronic liver disease worldwide and presents a variable natural history ranging from minimal changes to advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis and its complications, such as development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Approximately, 1.45 million people are estimated to be infected by HCV in Brazil representing a major public health...

Six-month survival of critically ill patients with HIV-related disease and tuberculosis: a retrospective study

Background Tuberculosis is one of the leading causes of death from infectious diseases worldwide, mainly after the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemics. Patient with HIV-related illness are more likely to present with severe TB due to immunosuppression. Very few studies have explored HIV/TB co-infection in critically ill patients. The goal of this study was to analyze...

A decade of HAART in Latin America: Long term outcomes among the first wave of HIV patients to receive combination therapy

Background In Latin America, the first wave of HIV-infected patients initiated highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) 10 or more years ago. Characterizing their treatment experience and corresponding outcomes across a decade of HAART may yield insights relevant to the ongoing care of such patients and those initiating HAART more recently in similar clinical settings...

Predictors of opportunistic illnesses incidence in post combination antiretroviral therapy era in an urban cohort from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Sandra W. Cardoso Rodrigo T. Amancio Ronaldo I. Moreira Sayonara R. Ribeiro Alessandra B. Coelho Dayse P. Campos Valdiléa G. Veloso Beatriz Grinsztejn Paula M. Luz Background: Opportunistic illnesses

Traditional and HIV-specific risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected adults in Brazil: a retrospective cohort study

Background Antiretroviral therapy (ART) agents potentially associated with adverse metabolic profiles are commonly used in low- and middle-income countries. We assessed risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related morbidity and mortality in a cohort of HIV-infected, ART-treated adults in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods Hospital records and mortality data between 2000...

The Men Who Have Sex with Men HIV Care Cascade in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Brazil has a concentrated HIV epidemic and men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected. Yet, no data is available on the HIV care cascade for this population. This study aimed to assess the HIV care cascade among MSM newly diagnosed through innovative testing strategies in Rio de Janeiro. Data from 793 MSM and travestites/transgender women (transwomen) tested...

Combined evaluation of sexually transmitted infections in HIV-infected pregnant women and infant HIV transmission

, Gerhard Theron, Breno Santos, Rosana Fonseca, Regis Kreitchmann, Jorge 14 / 18 Pinto, Marisa M. Mussi-Pinhata, Mariana Ceriotto, Daisy Maria Machado, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Karin Nielsen-Saines. Formal ... : Jiahong Xu, Margaret Camarca, Mariza G. Morgado, D. Heather Watts, Lynne M. Mofenson, Valdilea G. Veloso, Esau Joao, Gerhard Theron, Regis Kreitchmann, Jorge Pinto, Daisy Maria Machado, Beatriz Grinsztejn

Vitamin D 3 supplementation in HIV infection: effectiveness and associations with antiretroviral therapy

Background HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) may create unique risk factors for vitamin D insufficiency, including alterations of vitamin D metabolism by ART. We prospectively compared demographic and clinical parameters between vitamin D sufficient and insufficient HIV-infected (HIV+) adults, and assessed changes in these parameters among insufficient participants...

Association of HIV diversity and virologic outcomes in early antiretroviral treatment: HPTN 052

Higher HIV diversity has been associated with virologic outcomes in children on antiretroviral treatment (ART). We examined the association of HIV diversity with virologic outcomes in adults from the HPTN 052 trial who initiated ART at CD4 cell counts of 350–550 cells/mm3. A high resolution melting (HRM) assay was used to analyze baseline (pre-treatment) HIV diversity in six...

A cross-sectional study of high-risk human papillomavirus clustering and cervical outcomes in HIV-infected women in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Background In Brazil, the rate of cervical cancer remains high despite the availability of screening programs. With ongoing vaccine development and implementation, information on the prevalence of specific HPV types is needed, particularly among high-risk populations, such as HIV-infected women. Methods We performed a study of HIV-infected women in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, who...

Genotypic Characterization of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Isolates in Immunocompromised Patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a prevalent human pathogen that causes a variety of diseases, including an increased risk of developing more severe disease in HIV-infected individuals. In Brazil, there is no information about the molecular epidemiology of HSV-1 infection, especially in HIV-infected individuals. The aim of this study was to perform the genotypic...

Predictors and outcomes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteremia among patients with HIV and tuberculosis co-infection enrolled in the ACTG A5221 STRIDE study

Background We evaluated predictors and outcomes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteremia among participants undergoing baseline mycobacterial blood culture in the ACTG A5221 STRIDE study, a randomized clinical trial comparing earlier with later ART among HIV-infected patients suspected of having tuberculosis with CD4-positive T-lymphocyte counts (CD4 counts) <250 cells/mm3. We...

Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and syphilis among men who have sex with men in Brazil

Background Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are frequently asymptomatic and increase the likelihood of transmitting and acquiring HIV. In Brazil, the guidelines for STDs diagnosis and treatment are based on the syndromic approach. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) has been recommended as routine STDs screening in some countries, especially for men who have sex with men...

HIV Infection Is Not Associated with Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Brazil: A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the INI/ELSA-Brasil Study

Background Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) has been used as an early marker of atherosclerotic disease in the general population. Recently its role among HIV-infected patients has been questioned. To date, no Brazilian study has compared cIMT in respect to HIV status. Methods We compared data from 535 patients actively followed in a prospective cohort in Rio de Janeiro (HIV...

Client and Provider Perspectives on New HIV Prevention Tools for MSM in the Americas

Men who have sex with men (MSM) in the Americas require targeted, combination HIV prevention approaches. We solicited client and provider perspectives on emerging prevention interventions including HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and HIV self-tests through focus groups and in-depth interviews with 130 MSM and 41 providers across four sites: New York, San Francisco, Lima, and...

Long-Term CD4+ Cell Count in Response to Combination Antiretroviral Therapy

Objective There is a continuous debate on how to adequately evaluate long-term CD4+ cell count in response to combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Our study evaluated the long-term CD4+ cell count response (up to ten years) after initiation of ART and described the differences in the CD4+ cell count response...