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Day-to-day fasting glycaemic variability in DEVOTE: associations with severe hypoglycaemia and cardiovascular outcomes (DEVOTE 2)

, University of Toronto , Toronto, ON M5T 3L9 , Canada 2 Bernard Zinman 3 University of North Carolina School of Medicine , Chapel Hill, NC , USA 4 Novo Nordisk A/S , Søborg , Denmark 5 Sanford Burnham Prebys

DEVOTE 3: temporal relationships between severe hypoglycaemia, cardiovascular outcomes and mortality

Aims/hypothesis The double-blind Trial Comparing Cardiovascular Safety of Insulin Degludec vs Insulin Glargine in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes at High Risk of Cardiovascular Events (DEVOTE) assessed the cardiovascular safety of insulin degludec. The incidence and rates of adjudicated severe hypoglycaemia, and all-cause mortality were also determined. This paper reports a secondary ...

Sex of the baby and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in the mother: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Aims/hypothesis It has recently emerged that carrying a male fetus may be associated with poorer maternal beta cell function and an increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Recognising that the overall impact of fetal sex on maternal glucose metabolism is likely to be subtle, we sought to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies to obtain ...

Metformin in women with type 2 diabetes in pregnancy (MiTy): a multi-center randomized controlled trial

Background The incidence of type 2 diabetes in pregnancy is rising and rates of serious adverse maternal and fetal outcomes remain high. Metformin is a biguanide that is used as first-line treatment for non-pregnant patients with type 2 diabetes. We hypothesize that metformin use in pregnancy, as an adjunct to insulin, will decrease adverse outcomes by reducing maternal ...

Efficacy and Safety of Linagliptin Co-Administered with Low-Dose Metformin Once Daily Versus High-Dose Metformin Twice Daily in Treatment-Naïve Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: a Double-Blind Randomized Trial

Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of linagliptin + low-dose (LD) metformin once daily versus high-dose (HD) metformin twice daily in treatment-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods Patients (n = 689) were randomized (1:1) to double-blind treatment with linagliptin 5 mg + LD metformin (1000 mg) or HD metformin (2000 mg) for 14 ...

Glycemic Variability in Patients With Early Type 2 Diabetes: The Impact of Improvement in β-Cell Function

OBJECTIVE Increased glycemic variability has been reported to be associated with the risk of hypoglycemia and possibly diabetes complications and is believed to be due to β-cell dysfunction. However, it is not known whether improvement in β-cell function can reduce glycemic variability. Because short-term intensive insulin therapy (IIT) can improve β-cell function in early type 2 ...

Liraglutide Promotes Natriuresis but Does Not Increase Circulating Levels of Atrial Natriuretic Peptide in Hypertensive Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes

OBJECTIVE GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists induce natriuresis and reduce blood pressure (BP) through incompletely understood mechanisms. We examined the effects of acute and 21-day administration of liraglutide on plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), urinary sodium excretion, office and 24-h BP, and heart rate (HR).

Liraglutide and the Preservation of Pancreatic β-Cell Function in Early Type 2 Diabetes: The LIBRA Trial

Ravi Retnakaran Caroline K. Kramer Haysook Choi Balakumar Swaminathan Bernard Zinman Clinical studies evaluating the effects of medications on b-cell function in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are

Delayed timing of post-challenge peak blood glucose predicts declining beta cell function and worsening glucose tolerance over time: insight from the first year postpartum

Aims/hypothesis On cross-sectional assessment, a delayed timing of the peak blood glucose level at ≥60 min post-challenge on an OGTT is associated with beta cell dysfunction. In this context, we hypothesised that longitudinal changes in the timing of this peak might predict changes in glucose metabolism. We thus sought to evaluate the longitudinal associations of changes in the ...

Diurnal Glycemic Patterns during an 8-Week Open-Label Proof-of-Concept Trial of Empagliflozin in Type 1 Diabetes

Background We recently reported improved glycemic control with reduced insulin dose in subjects with type 1 diabetes treated with the sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor empagliflozin. To further characterize the effects, we analyzed diurnal glycemic patterns by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Methods In an 8-week single-arm open-label pilot study of empagliflozin, we ...

Prospective Associations of Vitamin D Status With β-Cell Function, Insulin Sensitivity, and Glycemia: The Impact of Parathyroid Hormone Status

Previous studies have yielded conflicting findings on the relationship between low vitamin D (25-OH-D) and impaired glucose homeostasis. In this context, we hypothesized that combined assessment of 25-OH-D with its regulator parathyroid hormone (PTH) may be required for optimal evaluation of the impact of vitamin D status on glucose metabolism. Thus, we evaluated the prospective ...

Short Leg Length, a Marker of Early Childhood Deprivation, Is Associated With Metabolic Disorders Underlying Type 2 Diabetes: The PROMISE cohort study

LUKE W. JOHNSTON BSC STEWART B. HARRIS RAVI RETNAKARAN HERTZEL C. GERSTEIN BERNARD ZINMAN JILL HAMILTON ANTHONY J. HANLEY PHD E p i d e m i o l o g y / H e a l t h OBJECTIVEdShort leg length, a

Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibition and Glycemic Control in Type 1 Diabetes: Results of an 8-Week Open-Label Proof-of-Concept Trial

OBJECTIVE Adjunctive-to-insulin therapy with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibition may improve glycemic control in type 1 diabetes (T1D).